Arno W Hoes

University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

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Publications (13)40.9 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Coincidence of COPD and heart failure (HF) is challenging as both diseases interact on multiple levels with each other, and thus impact significantly on diagnosis, disease severity classification, and choice of medical therapy. The current overview aims to educate caregivers involved in the daily management of patients with HF and (possibly) concurrent COPD in how to deal with clinically relevant issues such as interpreting spirometry, the potential role of extensive pulmonary function testing, and finally, the potential beneficial, but also detrimental effects of medication used for HF and COPD on either disease.
    European Journal of Heart Failure 10/2014; · 5.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: chronic dyspnoea is common in older people and is often of cardiac or pulmonary aetiology. Information on the exact prevalence and distribution of underlying causes is scarce. Our aim was to review the literature on prevalence and underlying causes of dyspnoea in the older population.Methods: two MEDLINE searches were conducted: the first on studies on the prevalence of dyspnoea in older persons aged ≥65 years using the Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnoea scale and the second on the underlying causes of dyspnoea in this population. Quality assessment was performed for all included studies. Random effects models based on the logit transformed prevalences were used to calculate pooled prevalence with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI).Results: a total of 21 articles from 20 different populations reported the prevalence in the general older population with a median sample size of 600 (Interquartile range 262-1289). The pooled prevalence was 36% (95% CI: 27-47%) for an MRC of ≥2, 16% (95% CI: 12-21%) for an MRC of ≥3 and 4% (95% CI: 2-9%) for an MRC of ≥4. Prevalence rates were higher in women than in men.Only one article investigated the underlying causes of dyspnoea in older persons; in 70% of these patients, the dyspnoea was considered to be of cardiac or pulmonary origin.Conclusion: dyspnoea is very common in older people, but estimates vary considerably between studies. Only one study describes the underlying causes.
    Age and Ageing 01/2014; · 3.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prolongation of the QT interval can predispose to fatal ventricular arrhythmias. Differences in QT-labeling language can result in miscommunication and suboptimal risk mitigation. We systematically compared the phraseology used to communicate on QT-prolonging properties of 144 drugs newly approved (1st January 2006 to 1st June 2012) in the European Union (EU) and the United States (US), of which 66 mentioned the term ‘QT’ (two EU only, 28 US only, 36 both). The agreement between authorities about the message on QT prolongation (does not prolong, unclear, possibly prolongs, prolongs) was moderate (kappa 0.434). However, the agreement in expected clinical decisions based on the product labels was much higher (kappa 0.673). The US drug label tends to be more explicit, especially when it considers absence of QT effects.
    Drug Discovery Today. 01/2014;
  • Arno W Hoes
    European Journal of Heart Failure 01/2013; · 5.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed to determine whether (1) patients with obstructive pulmonary disease (OPD) have an increased risk of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) due to ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation (VT/VF), and (2) the SCA risk is mediated by cardiovascular risk-profile and/or respiratory drug use. A community-based case-control study was performed, with 1310 cases of SCA of the ARREST study and 5793 age, sex and SCA-date matched non-SCA controls from the PHARMO database. Only incident SCA cases, age older than 40 years, that resulted from unequivocal cardiac causes with electrocardiographic documentation of VT/VF were included. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between SCA and OPD. Pre-specified subgroup analyses were performed regarding age, sex, cardiovascular risk-profile, disease severity, and current use of respiratory drugs. A higher risk of SCA was observed in patients with OPD (n = 190 cases [15%], 622 controls [11%]) than in those without OPD (OR adjusted for cardiovascular risk-profile 1.4 [1.2-1.6]). In OPD patients with a high cardiovascular risk-profile (OR 3.5 [2.7-4.4]) a higher risk of SCA was observed than in those with a low cardiovascular risk-profile (OR 1.3 [0.9-1.9]) The observed SCA risk was highest among OPD patients who received short-acting β2-adrenoreceptor agonists (SABA) or anticholinergics (AC) at the time of SCA (SABA OR: 3.9 [1.7-8.8], AC OR: 2.7 [1.5-4.8] compared to those without OPD). OPD is associated with an increased observed risk of SCA. The most increased risk was observed in patients with a high cardiovascular risk-profile, and in those who received SABA and, possibly, those who received AC at the time of SCA.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(6):e65638. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary restriction-a reduction of lung volumes-is common in heart failure (HF), rendering severity grading of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) potentially problematic in subjects with both diseases. We compared pulmonary function in patients with either HF or COPD, or the combination to assess whether grading of COPD using the Global Initiative of Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease classification is hampered in the presence of HF. In 2 cohorts involving 591 patients with established HF and 405 with a primary care diagnosis of COPD, the presence of HF and COPD was assessed according to guidelines. HF severity was staged according to the NYHA classification system into Classes I-IV. COPD was diagnosed if the ratio of post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) was <0.70, and categorized in GOLD stages I-IV according to post-bronchodilator-predicted FEV1 levels (FEV1% ≥80%; 50-79%; 30-49%; <30%). In total, 557 patients with HF only, 108 with HF+COPD, and 194 with COPD only were studied. Patients, who had neither HF nor COPD according to definition, or HF with reversible obstruction in post-bronchodilator pulmonary function tests were excluded from this analysis (n = 137). Compared with COPD only, patients with HF plus COPD had higher levels of post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC (median [quartiles] 0.57 [0.47-0.64] vs 0.62 [0.55-0.66] and lower total lung capacity % (115 [104-126]% vs 105 [95-117]%, P < .001) P < .001), but comparable levels of post-bronchodilator FEV1% (70 [56-84]% vs 68 [54-80]%, P = .22) and thus similar distributions of GOLD stages I-IV in both groups (24/56/19/4% vs 31/50/19/1%, P = .57). In patients with HF only, 25% exhibited pre-bronchodilator FEV1% levels of <80% (FEV1% 94 [80-108]%), despite a pre-bronchodilator FEV/FVC ratio ≥0.7 in this group. The reduction of FEV1 in patients with HF only was associated with HF severity. In stable HF, FEV1 may be significantly reduced even in the absence of "real" airflow obstruction. In this situation, diagnosing COPD according to GOLD criteria (based on FEV1/FVC) still seems feasible, because both FEV1 and FVC are usually decreased to an equal extent in HF. However, classifying COPD based on FEV1 levels may overrate obstruction severity in patients with combined disease (HF plus COPD), and thus may lead to unjustified use of bronchodilators.
    Journal of cardiac failure 08/2012; 18(8):637-44. · 3.25 Impact Factor
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    Respiratory research 07/2012; 13:61. · 3.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diagnosis of heart failure in primary care is often inaccurate, and access to and use of echocardiography is suboptimal. This study aimed to develop and provisionally validate a clinical prediction rule to optimize referral for echocardiography of people identified in primary care with suspected heart failure. A systematic review identified studies of diagnosis of heart failure set in primary care. The individual patient data for five of these studies were obtained. Logistic regression models to predict heart failure were developed on one of the data sets and validated on the others using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), and goodness-of-fit calibration plots. A model based upon four simple clinical features (Male, history of myocardial Infarction, Crepitations, Edema: MICE) and natriuretic peptide had good validity when applied to other data sets, with AUROCs between 0.84 and 0.93, and reasonable calibration. The rule performed well across the data sets, with sensitivity between 81% and 96% and specificity between 57% and 74%. A simple clinical rule based upon gender, history of myocardial infarction, presence of ankle oedema, and presence of basal lung crepitations can discriminate between people with suspected heart failure who should be referred straight for echocardiography and people for whom referral should depend upon the result of a natriuretic peptide test. Prospective validation and an implementation evaluation of the rule is now warranted.
    European Journal of Heart Failure 06/2012; 14(9):1000-8. · 5.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) defines COPD as a fixed post-bronchodilator ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) below 0.7. Age-dependent cut-off values below the lower fifth percentile (LLN) of this ratio derived from the general population have been proposed as an alternative. We wanted to assess the diagnostic accuracy and prognostic capability of the GOLD and LLN definition when compared to an expert-based diagnosis. In a prospective cohort study, 405 patients aged ≥ 65 years with a general practitioner's diagnosis of COPD were recruited and followed up for 4.5 (median; quartiles 3.9; 5.1) years. Prevalence rates of COPD according to GOLD and three LLN definitions and diagnostic performance measurements were calculated. The reference standard was the diagnosis of COPD of an expert panel that used all available diagnostic information, including spirometry and bodyplethysmography. Compared to the expert panel diagnosis, 'GOLD-COPD' misclassified 69 (28%) patients, and the three LLNs misclassified 114 (46%), 96 (39%), and 98 (40%) patients, respectively. The GOLD classification led to more false positives, the LLNs to more false negative diagnoses. The main predictors beyond the FEV1/FVC ratio for an expert diagnosis of COPD were the FEV1 % predicted, and the residual volume/total lung capacity ratio (RV/TLC). Adding FEV1 and RV/TLC to GOLD or LLN improved the diagnostic accuracy, resulting in a significant reduction of up to 50% of the number of misdiagnoses. The expert diagnosis of COPD better predicts exacerbations, hospitalizations and mortality than GOLD or LLN. GOLD criteria over-diagnose COPD, while LLN definitions under-diagnose COPD in elderly patients as compared to an expert panel diagnosis. Incorporating FEV1 and RV/TLC into the GOLD-COPD or LLN-based definition brings both definitions closer to expert panel diagnosis of COPD, and to daily clinical practice.
    Respiratory research 02/2012; 13(1):13. · 3.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the multidisciplinary practice guideline 'Heart failure 2010', the diagnosis of heart failure relies on a combination of signs and symptoms and on supplementary investigation with natriuretic peptides and echocardiography. Once diagnosed, it is important to detect the potentially treatable cause of the heart failure. The non-medical treatment consists of lifestyle advice, of which regular body exercise is the most important component. The medical treatment of patients with systolic heart failure consists of a diuretic, ACE inhibitor, and beta-blocker, optionally extended by an aldosterone antagonist, an angiotensin receptor blocker and/or digoxin. A restricted group of patients may require an internal cardiac defibrillator (ICD) and/or cardiac resynchronisation therapy. There is limited scientific evidence concerning treatment of patients with diastolic heart failure. It is important to coordinate the care of the patient with heart failure within a multidisciplinary team to provide optimal treatment and information for the patient.
    Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde 01/2011; 155:A2957.
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, a diagnostic score was developed to safely exclude deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) in primary care. A large prospective study, in which general practitioners used this diagnostic score to decide which patients needed referral, revealed that the number of referrals for ultrasound measurements was reduced by almost 50%, at the cost of an acceptably low risk (1.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.6% to 2.9%) of venous thromboembolic events in non-referred patients. However, simple adjustments to the diagnostic score (so-called updating) might further improve the accuracy; i.e. reduce the proportion of missed diagnoses (safety) or increase the proportion of patients who do not need to be referred (efficiency). We applied two updating methods to determine whether adjusting the weights of the predictors or adding new predictors could further improve the accuracy of the diagnostic score. The weights of the predictors did not need to be adjusted, but inclusion of 'history of DVT' and 'prolonged travelling' significantly added predictive value (p-values 0.014 and 0.023, respectively). However, adding these predictors to the diagnostic score did not improve the safety and efficiency: at equal safety (1.4% missed diagnoses among the non-referred patients), the efficiency was lower (43.5%, 95% CI 40.4% to 46.6% compared to 49.4%, 95% CI 46.3% to 52.5%). The diagnostic score for excluding DVT in primary care has good accuracy in its original form and could not be improved by including additional predictors. This suggests that the original diagnostic score can be used to safely exclude clinically suspected DVT in primary care.
    Thrombosis and Haemostasis 09/2010; 105(1):154-60. · 5.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: RATIONAL AND AIMS: In recent years, guidelines for treatment of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) have been updated. Insight in current pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of CHF in primary care, which was non-optimal in earlier studies, is limited. We aim to describe current pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of CHF in primary care. In this cross-sectional observational study, we included a representative sample of 357 patients diagnosed with CHF from 42 primary care practices in the Netherlands. We combined medical record data with data from patient and doctor questionnaires. Mean age of patients was 75.7 years (SD 10.2), 53% were male, and 73% of patients had mild heart failure (New York Heart Association class I or II). 76.5% of patients received diuretics. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were prescribed in 40.6% and angiotensin-II receptor blockers in 20.7%; beta-blockers were prescribed to 54.6%, while 24.9% received spironolactone. Patients with more severe heart failure had a lower probability of being treated according to guideline recommendations. Relevant lifestyle advice was given to 40-60% of the patients, depending on the specific lifestyle advice. Implementation of evidence-based pharmacotherapy for heart failure in primary care has improved since clinical guidelines have been updated; especially with respect to prescription of beta-blockers. However, there still seems ample room for improvement, as in the case for providing lifestyle advice.
    Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 04/2010; 16(3):644-50. · 1.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bosch M, Wensing M, Bakx JC, Van der Weijden T, Hoes AW, Grol RPTM. Behandeling van chronisch hartfalen. Huisarts Wet 2010;53(12):667–70. Achtergrond Vóór 2005, het jaar waarin de eerste herziening van de NHG-Standaard Hartfalen verscheen, kregen patiënten met chronisch hartfalen niet altijd de best mogelijke behandeling. Wij hebben onderzocht hoe de stand van zaken was na de verschijning van de herziene standaard. Methode In 2005–2006 onderzochten wij de medische dossiers van 357 patiënten uit 42 Nederlandse huisartsenpraktijken. Deze gegevens vulden wij aan met behulp van vragenlijsten aan patiënten en huisartsen. Resultaten De gemiddelde leeftijd van de patiënten was 75,7 jaar (SD 10,2), 53% was man en 73% had mild hartfalen. Onder de voorgeschreven middelen waren diuretica (76,5% van de patiënten), bètablokkers (54,6%), ACE-remmers (40,6%), spironolacton (24,9%) en angiotensine-II-receptorblokkers (20,7%). De kans dat de patiënt volgens de aanbevelingen werd behandeld, nam af naarmate het hartfalen ernstiger was. Op de niet-medicamenteuze behandeling scoorden de huisartsen slechter dan op de medicamenteuze: de leefstijladviezen die de NHG-Standaard aanbeveelt, bereikten ongeveer de helft van de patiënten. Conclusie De herziene NHG-Standaard Hartfalen heeft de behandeling van hartfalenpatiënten weliswaar naar een hoger niveau getild, maar het kan nog altijd beter, vooral als het gaat om monitoring en leefstijladviezen. UMC St Radboud, Scientific Institute for Quality of Healthcare, Postbus 9101, 114, 6500 HB, Nijmegen: dr. M. Bosch, onderzoeker; dr. M. Wensing, universitair hoofddocent; prof.dr. R.T.P.M. Grol, hoogleraar Kwaliteit van zorg. UMC St Radboud, afdeling Eerstelijnsgeneeskunde: dr. J.C. Bakx, huisarts-onderzoeker. Universiteit Maastricht, afdeling Huisartsgeneeskunde/ School CAPHRI: prof.dr. T. van der Weijden, hoogleraar Implementatie van richtlijnen. UMC Utrecht, Julius Centrum voor Gezondheidswetenschappen en Eerstelijns Geneeskunde: prof.dr. A.W. Hoes, hoogleraar Klinische epidemiologie en Huisartsgeneeskunde. Correspondentie: marije.bosch@monash.edu Mogelijke belangenverstrengeling: niets aangegeven. Het onderzoek werd gesubsidieerd door ZonMw, projectnummer 945-14-012. Dit is een bewerkte vertaling van Bosch M, Wensing M, Bakx JC, Van der Weijden T, Hoes AW, Grol RTPM. Current treatment of chronic heart failure in primary care; still room for improvement. J Eval Clin Pract 2010;16:644–50. Publicatie gebeurt met toestemming van de uitgever.
    Huisarts en wetenschap 01/2010;