[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The importance of eight nucleoside 2'-deoxyribosyltransferase residues for catalysis was investigated by site-directed mutagenesis. Each residue was selected because of its proximity to nucleophile Glu-98 or on its potential contribution to intrinsic protein fluorescence. Mutation of Asp-72, Asp-92, Tyr-7, Trp-12, and Met-125 resulted in over a 90% activity loss whereas mutation of Tyr-157, Trp-64, and Trp-127 produced less than a 80% activity loss. The magnitude of the perturbation on catalysis by mutation, however, was dependent on donor substrate. The kcat values for dIno hydrolysis by these mutants were greater than 25% of that for native enzyme. Although mutant and native enzymes bound substrate analogues with comparable affinities, Km values for dIno hydrolysis varied over a 1000-fold range. The pH dependence of Glu-98 esterification by dCyd suggested that amino acids with pK values of 4.2 and 7.5 were relevant for catalysis. The intrinsic protein fluorescence was attributed primarily to Trp-127 (approximately 80%). Pre-steady-state kinetic parameters for deoxyribosylation of mutant enzymes by dCyd, dThd, and dAdo were determined by monitoring changes in enzyme fluorescence. Collectively, results from mutagenesis suggest that, depending upon substrate, either Asp-92 or Asp-72 functions as the general acid catalyst, and that this enzyme undergoes a change in conformation upon Glu-98 deoxyribosylation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nucleoside 2-deoxyribosyltransferase plays an important role in the salvage pathway of nucleotide metabolism in certain organisms, catalyzing the cleavage of beta-2'-deoxyribonucleosides and the subsequent transfer of the deoxyribosyl moiety to an acceptor purine or pyrimidine base. The kinetics describe a ping-pong-bi-bi pathway involving the formation of a covalent enzyme-deoxyribose intermediate. The enzyme is produced by a limited number of microorganisms and its functions have been exploited in its use as a biocatalyst to synthesize nucleoside analogs of therapeutic interest.
We describe the crystal structure of the enzyme with and without bound ligand. The native structure was solved by the single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering method (SIRAS) and refined to 2.5 A resolution resulting in a crystallographic R factor of 16.6%. The enzyme comprises a single domain that belongs to the general class of doubly-wound alpha/beta proteins; it also exhibits a unique nucleoside-binding motif. X-ray analysis of enzyme-purine and enzyme-pyrimidine complexes presented here reveals that the active site lies in a cleft formed by the edge of the beta sheet and two alpha helices and contains side chains from two subunits.
These results indicate residues that may be important in substrate binding and catalysis and thus may serve as a framework for elucidating the mechanism of enzyme activity. In particular, the proposed nucleophile, Glu98, lies in the nucleoside-binding pocket at an appropriate position for nucleophilic attack. A comparison of the enzyme interactions with both a purine and pyrimidine ligand provides some insight into the structural basis for enzyme specificity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Uridine phosphorylase from E. coli (Upase) has been crystallized using vapor diffusion technique in a new monoclinic crystal form. The structure was determined by the molecular replacement method at 2.5 Å resolution. The coordinates of the trigonal crystal form were used as a starting model and the refinement by the program XPLOR led to the R-factor of 18.6%. The amino acid fold of the protein was found to be the same as that in the trigonal crystals. The positions of flexible regions were refined. The conclusion about the involvement in the active site is in good agreement with the results of the biochemical experiments.