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Publications (9)42.98 Total impact

  • Kimberly A Varker · Scott H Phelps · Marina M King · Carol L Williams ·
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    ABSTRACT: The two major forms of lung carcinoma, small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), are clinically distinct, and are also differentiated by morphology and behavior in culture. SCLC cells have a greater metastatic potential than NSCLC cells in vivo, and exhibit a unique spherical morphology in culture due to their inability to adhere and spread on the substratum. Because the small GTPase RhoA affects metastatic properties and regulates cell morphology, we examined whether differences in RhoA expression and activity contribute to the distinct SCLC and NSCLC phenotypes. We found that the expression and GTPgammaS-dependent activation of RhoA are generally greater in SCLC cell lines (SCC-9, NCI-H69, NCI-H146, and NCI-H345) than in NSCLC cell lines (NCI-H23, NCI-H157, NCI-H520, and NCI-H522). The effects of inhibiting Rho-mediated signaling in these cells were investigated by transfecting the cells with cDNA coding for C3 exoenzyme, which ADP-ribosylates and inactivates Rho. Expression of C3 exoenzyme in SCLC cells induces cell-cell compaction, and causes NCI-H345 cells to adhere and spread on collagen IV. In contrast, expression of C3 exoenzyme in NSCLC cells does not induce detectable compaction, but induces cell spreading of NCI-H23 and NCI-H157 cells. Cell proliferation is diminished by Rho inactivation in the majority of the NSCLC cell lines, but not the SCLC cell lines. Expression of p21Cip1/WAF1 is also diminished by Rho inactivation in two of the SCLC cell lines, but is not significantly altered in the NSCLC lines. These results indicate that Rho-mediated signaling may regulate different events in SCLC and NSCLC cells, including adhesion of SCLC cells and proliferation of NSCLC cells.
    International Journal of Oncology 04/2003; 22(3):671-81. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    D Strassheim · S H Shafer · S H Phelps · C L Williams ·
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    ABSTRACT: Aberrant signal transduction pathways involved in the development of metastatic disease are poorly defined in both small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Neuropeptide-driven positive feedback loops stimulating cell proliferation are characteristic of SCLC. The activation of phospholipase C (PLC)-beta1 is an early and common response to stimulation of G protein-coupled receptors by these neuroendocrine growth factors. The importance of PLC-beta in neuropeptide signaling prompted us to compare PLC-beta isoform expression and activity in four independent SCLC cell lines and four independent NSCLC cell lines. We found that PLC-beta1 is more highly expressed in SCLC than in NSCLC, as indicated by Western blotting of cell lysates. All SCLC lines studied express PLC-beta1; only one of the NSCLC lines investigated showed detectable levels of the enzyme. NSCLC lines are significantly more sensitive to the antiproliferative effects of ET-18-OCH3 (edelfosine) compared with the SCLC lines, as indicated by [3H]thymidine uptake. The only SCLC cell line (NCI-H345) that is as sensitive as the NSCLC cell lines to ET-18-OCH3 also expresses uniquely low levels of PLC-beta1. The participation of PLC-beta1 in signaling by SCLC growth factor receptors is indicated by our finding that PLC-beta1 (but not PLC-beta3) coimnunoprecipitates with G(alpha)q/11 upon activation of neurotensin receptors; this association is inhibited by ET-18-OCH3. Ca2+ mobilization mediated by neurotensin receptors is also inhibited by ET-18-OCH3. The binding of GTPgammaS to G(alpha)q/11 upon treatment of SCLC cells with neurotensin is not inhibited by ET-18-OCH3. These findings indicate that ET-18-OCH3 does not interfere with G(alpha)q/11 activation but rather inhibits the association of G(alpha)q/11 with PLC-beta1. Our data suggest that PLC-beta is an important mediator of both SCLC and NSCLC proliferation. Differences in PLC-beta1 expression may be exploitable in the development of effective diagnostic and therapeutic tools.
    Cancer Research 06/2000; 60(10):2730-6. · 9.33 Impact Factor
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    D Strassheim · RA Porter · S H Phelps · C L Williams ·
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    ABSTRACT: We compared the in vivo characteristics of hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged RhoA, dominant negative RhoA(Asn-19), and activated RhoA(Val-14) stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Proteins co-precipitating with these HA-tagged GTPases were identified by peptide sequencing or by Western blotting. Dominant negative RhoA(Asn-19) co-precipitates with the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) SmgGDS but does not detectably interact with other expressed GEFs, such as Ost or Dbl. SmgGDS co-precipitates minimally with wild-type RhoA and does not detectably associate with RhoA(Val-14). The guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor RhoGDI co-precipitates with RhoA, and to a lesser extent with RhoA(Val-14), but does not detectably co-precipitate with RhoA(Asn-19). Wild-type RhoA is predominantly in the [(32)P]GDP-bound form, RhoA(Val-14) is predominantly in the [(32)P]GTP-bound form, and negligible levels of [(32)P]GDP or [(32)P]GTP are bound to RhoA(Asn-19) in (32)P-labeled cells. Immunofluorescence analyses indicate that HA-RhoA(Asn-19) is excluded from the nucleus and cell junctions. Microinjection of SmgGDS cDNA into CHO cells stably expressing HA-RhoA causes HA-RhoA to be excluded from the nucleus and cell junctions, similar to the distribution of RhoA(Asn-19). Our findings indicate that the expression of RhoA(Asn-19) may specifically inhibit signaling pathways that rely upon the SmgGDS-dependent activation of RhoA.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2000; 275(10):6699-702. DOI:10.1074/jbc.275.10.6699 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) regulate the activity of smooth muscle myosin, the effects of mAChR activation on cytoplasmic myosin have not been characterized. We found that activation of transfected human M3 mAChR induces the phosphorylation of myosin light chains (MLC) and the formation of myosin-containing stress fibers in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-m3) cells. Direct activation of protein kinase C (PKC) with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) also induces myosin light chain phosphorylation and myosin reorganization in CHO-m3 cells. Conventional (alpha), novel (delta), and atypical (iota) PKC isoforms are activated by mAChR stimulation or PMA treatment in CHO-m3 cells, as indicated by PKC translocation or degradation. mAChR-mediated myosin reorganization is abolished by inhibiting conventional PKC isoforms with Go6976 (IC50 = 0.4 microM), calphostin C (IC50 = 2.4 microM), or chelerythrine (IC50 = 8.0 microM). Stable expression of dominant negative RhoAAsn-19 diminishes, but does not abolish, mAChR-mediated myosin reorganization in the CHO-m3 cells. Similarly, mAChR-mediated myosin reorganization is diminished, but not abolished, in CHO-m3 cells which are multi-nucleate due to inactivation of Rho with C3 exoenzyme. Expression of dominant negative RhoAAsn-19 or inactivation of RhoA with C3 exoenzyme does not affect PMA-induced myosin reorganization. These findings indicate that the PKC-mediated pathway of myosin reorganization (induced either by M3 mAChR activation or PMA treatment) can continue to operate even when RhoA activity is diminished in CHO-m3 cells. Conventional PKC isoforms and RhoA may participate in separate but parallel pathways induced by M3 mAChR activation to regulate cytoplasmic myosin. Changes in cytoplasmic myosin elicited by M3 mAChR activation may contribute to the unique ability of these receptors to regulate cell morphology, adhesion, and proliferation.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/1999; 274(26):18675-85. DOI:10.1074/jbc.274.26.18675 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Expression of endogenous cadherins by Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells has not been previously reported. However, we observed that CHO cells adhere to one another upon activation of transfected muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR), suggesting that the cells express endogenous cadherins. A 160-base pair RT-PCR product with 100% homology to the cytoplasmic domain of human E-cadherin was amplified from CHO cells. A second RT-PCR product amplified from these cells has 92% homology to the cytoplasmic domain of human cadherin-9 and 86% homology to the cytoplasmic domain of human cadherin-6. Western blotting indicates that CHO cells express a 165-kDa protein recognized by E-cadherin antibodies and a 120-kDa protein recognized by an antibody to the cadherin C-terminus sequence. The ability of transfected mAChR subtypes to regulate cadherin-mediated adhesion of CHO cells was tested by measuring the permeation of horseradish peroxidase across confluent CHO cell monolayers, by microscopic examination of the cells, and by aggregation assays. Cell-cell adhesion is induced within 15 min of activating transfected M1 or M3 mAChR which functionally couple to protein kinase C (PKC). In contrast, CHO cell adhesion is not affected by activating transfected M2 mAChR which functionally couple to other effectors. Activation of PKC with phorbol esters also induces cell-cell adhesion of all CHO sublines tested. Immunofluorescence assays reveal that endogenous cadherins redistribute on the plasma membrane of CHO cells following mAChR or PKC activation. Inactivation of cadherins by removal of extracellular Ca2+ abrogates adhesion induced by mAChR or PKC activation. Our demonstration that activation of only odd-numbered mAChR subtypes induces cadherin-mediated adhesion suggests that the unique responses of cells to M1 or M3 mAChR stimulation may involve cadherin activation.
    Experimental Cell Research 05/1999; 248(1):148-59. DOI:10.1006/excr.1998.4385 · 3.25 Impact Factor
  • Shulamith H. Shafer · Scott H. Phelps · Carol L. Williams ·
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of the adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) phosphodiesterase inhibitors caffeine, theophylline, and 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine (IBMX) on the proliferation and viability of the small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) cell lines NCI-H345, NCI-H128, and SCC-9. These effects were correlated with the ability of the drugs to induce intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. Treatment of NCI-H345 cells with caffeine resulted in rapid mobilization of Ca2+, as indicated by Fura-2 fluorescence. Incubation of NCI-H345 cells with 6.25 mM caffeine resulted in a 62% inhibition of [3H]thymidine uptake after 2 hr, indicating reduced DNA synthesis. Incubation with 25 mM caffeine resulted in almost total inhibition of [3H]thymidine uptake after 2 hr. Similar effects on [3H]thymidine uptake were seen upon treatment of NCI-H128 and SCC-9 cells with caffeine; however, these cells did not exhibit caffeine-induced Ca2+ mobilization. Inhibition of DNA synthesis (66-93%) also occurred upon incubation of all cell lines with theophylline and IBMX, which did not mobilize Ca2+. Treatment of NCI-H345, NCI-H128, and SCC-9 cells with caffeine, theophylline, or IBMX markedly reduced cell viability. Levels of cAMP increased in the cells following treatment with caffeine, theophylline, or IBMX, reflecting the ability of these drugs to inhibit cAMP phosphodiesterase. These results suggest that the decrease in DNA synthesis and the subsequent cell death induced by these drugs are due to reduced cAMP phosphodiesterase activity, rather than to changes in intracellular Ca2+. These findings indicate that drugs that alter cAMP signaling pathways are potentially valuable agents to inhibit SCLC survival.
    Biochemical Pharmacology 12/1998; 56(9):1229-36. DOI:10.1016/S0006-2952(98)00260-3 · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ethanol disrupts signal transduction mediated by a variety of G-protein coupled receptors. We examined the effects of ethanol on arachidonic acid release mediated by muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with the different subtypes of human muscarinic receptors (M1 to M5) were incubated with [3H]arachidonic acid ([3H]AA) for 18 hr, washed, and exposed to the cholinergic agonist carbamylcholine for 15 min. Carbamylcholine induced [3H]AA release from CHO cells expressing M1, M3, or M5, but not M2 or M4, muscarinic receptors. Dose response curves revealed that carbamylcholine stimulated [3H]AA release by up to 12-fold with an ECo of approximately 0.4 microM; maximal responses were obtained with 10 microM carbamylcholine. Exposure of M1-, M3-, or M5-expressing cells to ethanol for 5 min before stimulating with carbamylcholine reduced [3H]AA release by 40 to 65%; 50% of the maximal inhibition was obtained with an ethanol concentration of 30 to 50 mM. Ethanol did not affect basal [3H]AA release measured in the absence of carbamylcholine. Dose response curves suggest that ethanol acts as a noncompetitive inhibitor of muscarinic receptor-induced [3H]AA release insofar as maximal [3H]AA release was depressed in the presence of ethanol with no apparent change in the EC50 for stimulation by carbamylcholine. Exposure of CHO cells to 38 mM ethanol for 48 hr increased [3H]AA release induced by carbamylcholine without affecting basal [3H]AA release or altering the EC50 for carbamylcholine. These results indicate that ethanol acutely inhibits muscarinic receptor signaling through the arachidonic acid pathway in a noncompetitive manner, but chronically enhances muscarinic signaling through the same pathway.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 05/1998; 22(2):409-15. DOI:10.1111/j.1530-0277.1998.tb03667.x · 3.21 Impact Factor
  • Carol L. Williams · Scott H. Phelps · Rebecca A. Porter ·
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    ABSTRACT: Because changes in intracellular Ca2+ affect progression through the mitotic cell cycle, we investigated the role of Ca2+-binding proteins in regulating cell cycle progression. Evidence was found demonstrating that the activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) inhibits cell cycle progression in small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) cells. We also demonstrated that SCLC cells express both CaM kinase type II (CaMKII) and CaM kinase type IV (CaMKIV). Five independent SCLC cell lines expressed proteins reactive with antibody to the CaMKII beta subunit, but none expressed detectable proteins reactive with antibody to the CaMKII alpha subunit. All SCLC cell lines tested expressed both the alpha and beta isoforms of CaMKIV. Immunoprecipitation of CaMKII from SCLC cells yielded multiple proteins that autophosphorylated in the presence of Ca2+ / calmodulin. Autophosphorylation was inhibited by the CaMKII(281-302) peptide, which corresponds to the CaMKII autoinhibitory domain, and by 1-[N,O-bis(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-N-methyl-L-tyrosyl]-4- phenylpiperazine (KN-62), a specific CaM kinase antagonist. Influx of Ca2+ through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels stimulated phosphorylation of CaMKII in SCLC cells, and this was inhibited by KN-62. Incubation of SCLC cells of KN-62 potently inhibited DNA synthesis, and slowed progression through S phase. Similar anti-proliferative effects of KN-62 occurred in SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells, which express both CaMKII and CaMKIV, and in K562 human chronic myelogenous leukemia cells, which express CaMKII but not CaMKIV. The expression of both CaMKII and CaMKIV by SCLC cells, and the sensitivity of these cells to the anti-proliferative effects of KN-62, suggest a role for CaM kinase in regulating SCLC proliferation.
    Biochemical Pharmacology 04/1996; 51(5):707-15. DOI:10.1016/S0006-2952(95)02393-3 · 5.01 Impact Factor
  • Carol L. Williams · Rebecca A. Porter · Scott H. Phelps ·
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    ABSTRACT: Although small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) cells express both voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCC) and second messenger-operated Ca2+ channels (SMOCC), little is known about the factors that regulate the activity of these channels in SCLC cells. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) type II has been implicated recently in regulating Ca2+ channel activity in other cell types. Because of this, we investigated the effects of the specific CaM kinase antagonist 1-[N,O-bis(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-N-methyl-L-tryosyl] -4-phenylpiperazine [sequence: see text] (KN-62) on Ca2+ channel activity in SCLC cells. Incubation with 10 microM KN-62 for 20 min inhibited depolarization-dependent 45Ca2+ influx by 96.1 +/- 2.1% in four independent SCLC cell lines, and by 42.2 +/- 6.8% in the NCI-H146 SCLC cell line. Similar inhibitory effects of KN-62 were observed when Fura-2 was used to measure depolarization-dependent Ca2+ influx. These results indicate that KN-62 potently inhibits VGCC activity in SCLC cells. In contrast, KN-62 (10 microM, 20 min) did not inhibit significantly Ca2+ mobilization induced by muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) activation in SCLC cells. This indicates that SMOCC are less susceptible than VGCC to inhibition by KN-62 in SCLC cells. Because mAChR activation also inhibits VGCC activity in SCLC cells, we examined the effects of KN-62 on the mAChR-mediated inhibition of VGCC activity. To do this, we measured depolarization-dependent 45Ca2+ influx in SCLC cells incubated with submaximal concentrations of KN-62 and the mAChR agonist carbachol. Treatment of cells with both drugs resulted in almost twice as much inhibition of VGCC activity as in cells treated with only one of the drugs. This indicates that inactivation of CaM kinase with KN-62 does not suppress the ability of mAChR agonists to inhibit VGCC activity.
    Biochemical Pharmacology 01/1996; 50(12):1979-85. DOI:10.1016/0006-2952(95)02096-9 · 5.01 Impact Factor