S Zinyowera

University of Zimbabwe, Salisbury, Harare Province, Zimbabwe

Are you S Zinyowera?

Claim your profile

Publications (5)3.65 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Zimbabwe among 1303 primary schoolchildren from a rural (53.3%) and a commercial farming area (46.7%) to determine the prevalence of co-infection by helminths and Plasmodium falciparum. Urine was examined on three successive days using the filtration method. Two stool specimens were processed using the Kato-Katz method and a third specimen was processed using the sedimentation method. Plasmodium falciparum was diagnosed from thick blood films. The prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium in the rural and farming areas was 66.8% and 52.3%, respectively, and for S. mansoni the prevalence was 12.4% and 22.7%, respectively. Plasmodium falciparum, hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura occurred only in the farming area, with a prevalence of 27.9%, 23.7%, 2.1%, 2.3%, respectively. Co-infection and triple infection with schistosomes, P. falciparum and soil-transmitted helminths occurred in the commercial farming area only. Hookworm and S. mansoni infections were associated with P. falciparum malaria (P<0.001, OR=2.48, 95% CI 1.56-3.93 and P=0.005, OR=1.85, 95% CI 1.20-2.87, respectively). Overlap of helminths with malaria is a concern among primary schoolchildren and incorporating helminth control in programmes aiming to control malaria will improve funding and increase the efficiency of control for neglected tropical diseases in identified co-endemic settings.
    Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 10/2008; 102(10):1039-45. · 1.82 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We examined the efficacy of praziquantel against Schistosoma haematobium among primary school children during a school-based deworming programme in the Burma Valley commercial farming area and the Nyamaropa rural areas in Zimbabwe, where the disease is highly endemic. Among 767 individuals infected with S. haematobium, 675 (88.0%) received treatment. Two single oral doses of 40mg/kg praziquantel were given 6 weeks apart. Of the 675 participants, heavy infection intensity was more common in males than females (chi(2)=6.61, P=0.010). Six weeks later, 624 participants (92.4%) were successfully followed up. The overall cure rate was 88.5% and the egg reduction rate was 98.2%. The highest cure rate was among those individuals with light infection. Seventy-two individuals remained infected at 6 weeks post treatment, among which 3 and 69 individuals had heavy and light infection, respectively. Forty-six of these children resolved following a second round of treatment at 6 weeks follow-up. Of the remaining children successfully followed-up, 22 resolved after a third round of treatment 6 months later. A wide range of observed mild and transient side effects were not associated with egg intensity. The parasitological cure rate was not associated with gender or age. Our study demonstrates that praziquantel is efficacious against S. haematobium in Zimbabwe, although low levels of persistent infection warrant further investigation.
    Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 09/2008; 102(8):759-66. · 1.82 Impact Factor
  • International Journal of Infectious Diseases - INT J INFECT DIS. 01/2008; 12.
  • International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - INT J ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS. 01/2007; 29.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine the effects of chemotherapy on the humoral immune responses in single and coinfected individuals with Schistosoma haematobium and Plasmodium falciparum. Prospective assessment of the humoral immune responses after treatment with praziquantel for schistosomiasis and chloroquine for malaria. The study was carried out in four rural schools in Goromonzi and Mtoko districts 50km and 143km away from Harare respectively where both schistosomiasis and malaria are endemic. 555 school children aged 8 to 19 years; 298 from Goromonzi and 257 from Mtoko. Standard ELISA assays were carried out on the sera for immmunoglobin A (IgA), immmunoglobin E (IgE), immmunoglobin M (IgM) and immmunoglobin G (IgG) against the Schistosoma haematobium soluble worm antigen (SWA), soluble egg antigen (SEA), cercaria antigen (CERCA) and the Plasmodium falciparum malaria antigen (MALA). Eosinophil count was also done on Giemsa stained smears. Treatment resulted in a decrease of sera IgA levels against SEA in those individuals that had schistosomiasis only and there was a significant increase of sera IgE against the cercaria antigen (p < 0.05). Those that had malaria whether singly or coinfected sera IgE against MALA decreased but sera IgE against SEA increased. Sera IgE against SEA increased significantly (p < 0.05) in those that had neither infections who had been given praziquantel treatment. Eosinophilia was evident in parasitic infections. Schistosomiasis is a problem in rural settings as in all the four schools > 50% of the pupils were infected, whilst those that were < 15 years of age had high egg intensities. There was a rise in sera IgE antibodies against SEA and CERCA in all the cases that were treated with praziquantel, an indication that treatment does alter the immune response favouring resistance to infection by Schistosoma haematobium. Those that had malaria singly or coinfected produced high levels of sera IgE against SEA an indication that malaria infection influences the cytokine environment to favour production of IgE isotypes against the schistosome egg antigen.
    The Central African journal of medicine 01/2006; 52(9-12):104-11.