S Nilgün Cömezoglu

Bristol-Myers Squibb, New York, New York, United States

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Publications (4)17.79 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Ixabepilone (BMS-247550, Ixempra is a semi-synthetic analog of the natural product epothilone B and marketed for its use in the treatment of cancer. A conventional human ADME study using decay counting methods for (14)C detection could not be conducted due to the radiolytic instability of [(14)C]ixabepilone at a typical specific activity (generally 1-10 microCi/mg). However, [(14)C]ixabepilone was sufficiently stable at low specific activity (1-2 nCi/mg). These low levels required the use of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for radioactivity detection. The metabolic fate of this compound was investigated in eight patients following single intravenous doses of [(14)C]ixabepilone (70 mg, 80 nCi; specific activity: 1.14 nCi/mg). Metabolite profiles in pooled urine, feces and plasma samples were determined by HPLC-AMS analysis. The major radioactive component in urine and plasma was [(14)C]ixabepilone. Feces had a small amount of ixabepilone. There were numerous other drug-related components in both urine and fecal extracts (each <6% of the administered dose). LC/MS analysis of plasma, urine and feces samples showed the presence of three degradants of ixabepilone and several oxidative metabolites (M+16, M+14 and M-2 metabolites). This study demonstrates the utility of AMS in investigating the metabolite and excretion profiles of [(14)C]ixabepilone following administration to humans.
    Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 12/2009; 24(6):511-22. DOI:10.2133/dmpk.24.511 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 3'-tert-Butyl-3'-N-tert-butyloxycarbonyl-4-deacetyl-3'-dephenyl-3'-N-debenzoyl-4-O-methoxy-paclitaxel (BMS-275183) is a taxane analog that has the potential for oral use in the treatment of various types of cancer. In this study, the metabolism and excretion of [(14)C]BMS-275183 were evaluated after a single oral administration of [(14)C]BMS-275183 to rats and dogs (15 and 1 mg/kg, respectively). To aid metabolite identification by mass spectrometry (MS), a stable labeled (phenyl-(13)C(6)) BMS-275183 was included in 1:1 ratio of (13)C(6)/(12)C in the dose administration. Fecal excretion was the major route of elimination for [(14)C]BMS-275183 in both species (85-86 and <9% of the dose in feces and urine, respectively). The highest radioactivity in plasma was observed at 1 h postdose, suggesting rapid absorption of the drug in both species. The total radioactivity in plasma was measurable up to 24 h postdose. Metabolites were identified by liquid chromatography-MS and/or NMR spectroscopy. [(14)C]BMS-275183 was the prominent component in rat and dog plasma and was detected up to 24 h along with various oxidative and hydrolytic metabolites. [(14)C]BMS-275183 was extensively metabolized in both species, forming mainly oxidative metabolites, and unchanged parent drug accounted for <3.5% of the administered dose in urine and feces. The prominent metabolites resulted from oxidation of the tert-butyl groups on the side chain and further oxidation and cyclization of the tert-butylhydroxylated metabolites. A total of 30 oxidative metabolites including M13, a prominent ester cleavage metabolite, were identified in rat and dog samples.
    Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 02/2009; 37(5):1115-28. DOI:10.1124/dmd.108.025809 · 3.25 Impact Factor
  • Donglu Zhang · Van T Ly · Michael Lago · Yuan Tian · Jinping Gan · W Griffith Humphreys · S Nilgün Cömezoglu ·
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    ABSTRACT: 3'-tert-Butyl-3'-N-tert-butyloxycarbonyl-4-deacetyl-3'-dephenyl-3'-N-debenzoyl-4-O-methoxycarbonyl-paclitaxel (BMS-275183) is an orally available taxane analog that has the potential to be used as an oral agent to treat cancers. The compound is similar to the two clinically intravenously administered taxanes, paclitaxel and docetaxel, in that it contains a baccatin ring linked to a side chain through an ester bond. Unlike the other taxanes, the hydrolysis of this ester bond leads to formation of a free baccatin core (M13) that was the major metabolism pathway in incubations of [(14)C]BMS-275183 in human liver microsomes (HLMs) in the presence of NADPH, but it was not formed in incubations with human liver cytosol or HLM in the absence of NADPH. The other prominent metabolites formed in HLM incubations resulted from oxidation of t-butyl groups on the side chain (M20, M20B, M21, M22, and M23). All these metabolites were formed by cDNA-expressed CYP3A and not by other cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes tested. Formation of these metabolites was selectively inhibited by ketoconazole and troleandomycin. The formation of M13 followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with the K(m) values of 1.3 to 2.4 muM in HLM or CYP3A4; the V(max) value for the formation of M13 and M23 in the cDNA-expressed CYP3A4 matched well (within 2-fold difference) with that determined in HLM when expressed in units of per picomole of P450. These results showed that BMS-275183 is metabolized by CYP3A4 to yield baccatin through oxidation of side-chain t-butyl groups. An intramolecular cyclization of a side-chain hydroxylation metabolite is proposed to be responsible for the formation of M13, the side-chain hydrolysis metabolite.
    Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 02/2009; 37(4):710-8. DOI:10.1124/dmd.108.024398 · 3.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine if ixabepilone is a substrate for cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and if its metabolism by this cytochrome is clinically important, we did a clinical drug interaction study in humans using ketoconazole as an inhibitor of CYP3A4. Human microsomes were used to determine the cytochrome P450 enzyme(s) involved in the metabolism of ixabepilone. Computational docking (CYP3A4) studies were done for epothilone B and ixabepilone. A follow-up clinical study was done in patients with cancer to determine if 400 mg/d ketoconazole (inhibitor of CYP3A4) altered the pharmacokinetics, drug-target interactions, and pharmacodynamics of ixabepilone. Molecular modeling and human microsomal studies predicted ixabepilone to be a good substrate for CYP3A4. In patients, ketoconazole coadministration resulted in a maximum ixabepilone dose administration to 25 mg/m(2) when compared with single-agent therapy of 40 mg/m(2). Coadministration of ketoconazole with ixabepilone resulted in a 79% increase in AUC(0-infinity). The relationship of microtubule bundle formation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells to plasma ixabepilone concentration was well described by the Hill equation. Microtubule bundle formation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells correlated with neutropenia. Ixabepilone is a good CYP3A4 substrate in vitro; however, in humans, it is likely to be cleared by multiple mechanisms. Furthermore, our results provide evidence that there is a direct relationship between ixabepilone pharmacokinetics, neutrophil counts, and microtubule bundle formation in PBMCs. Strong inhibitors of CYP3A4 should be used cautiously in the context of ixabepilone dosing.
    Clinical Cancer Research 06/2008; 14(9):2701-9. DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-4151 · 8.72 Impact Factor