[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The apical region of the roots of 38 maxillary incisors, 25 mandibular incisors, 29 maxillary second premolars, 92 mandibular first and second premolars, 12 maxillary first molars, and 17 mandibular first molars were prepared and studied with the use of a scanning electron microscope. The number and size of the main apical foramina, their distance from the anatomic apex, and the existence and size of accessory foramina were recorded, summarized, and statistically analyzed. More than one main foramen was observed in all groups except for the palatal root of maxillary molars and the distal root of mandibular molars. Accessory foramina were also observed in all groups of teeth. The distal roots of mandibular molars had the largest size main foramen (mean value, 392 microns), whereas the maxillary premolars had the largest accessory foramina (mean value, 53.4 microns) and the most complicated apical morphologic makeup. The distance of the main foramen from the anatomic apex never exceeded 1 mm. The highest values were observed at the mandibular incisors (978 microns), the distal root of mandibular molars (818 microns), and the upper premolars (816 microns). All values showed satisfactory fitting to normal distribution.
Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology 03/1994; 77(2):172-6. DOI:10.1016/0030-4220(94)90281-X