[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Much effort is being made by the IT industry towards the development of a Web Service infrastructure to enable the discovery
and sharing of heterogeneous applications and data resources. The existing implementation of Web Service registries does not
have constraint specification and processing capabilities to achieve intelligent service discovery. In this work, we have
extended the Web Service Description Language to allow service providers to specify their service constraints, and developed
a Constraint-based Web Service Broker capable of matching a service requestor’s requirement specification against providers’
constraints to find their desired services. This paper presents the extended Web Service Description Language, the architecture
and implementation of the Broker, the constraint matching technique, and the result of a performance evaluation.
Electronic Commerce Research 02/2007; 7(1):45-67. · 0.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As the global marketplace becomes more and more competitive, business organisations often need to team up and operate as a virtual enterprise to utilise the best of their resources for achieving their common business goals. As the business environment of a virtual enterprise is highly dynamic, it is necessary to develop a workflow management technology that is capable of handling dynamic workflows across enterprise boundaries. This paper describes a Dynamic Workflow Model (DWM) and a dynamic workflow management system (DynaFlow) for modelling and controlling the execution of inter-organisational business processes. DWM enables the specification of dynamic properties associated with a business process model. It extends the underlying model of the WfMC's WPDL by adding connectors, events, triggers and rules as its modelling constructs. It also encapsulates activity definitions and allows web service (or e-service) requests to be included as a part of the activity specification. Using DWM as the underlying model, DynaFlow makes use of an Event-Trigger-Rule (ETR) server to trigger rules during the enactment of a workflow process to enforce business rules and policies and/or to modify the process model at run-time. A constraint-based, dynamic service binding mechanism is used to dynamically bind web service requests to web services that satisfy the requirements of the requests.
Int. J. Business Process Integration and Management. 01/2006; 1.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Internet has become the major platform for future inter-organizational knowledge-based applications. There is a need for
knowledge modeling and processing techniques to perform event management and rule processing in such a distributed environment.
We present an Event-Trigger-Rule (ETR) model, which differs from the conventional ECA rule model in that events and rules
can be defined and managed independently by different people/organizations at different sites. Triggers are specifications
that link distributed events with potentially complex structures of distributed rules to capture semantically rich and useful
knowledge. Triggers can also be specified by different people/organizations in a distributed environment. Based on the ETR
model, we have implemented an ETR Server that can be installed at multiple sites over the Internet. The ETR Server provides
platform inde-pendence, extensibility, processing of event histories and rule structures, dynamic rule change at run-time,
and Web-based GUI tools. The ETR Model and the implemented ETR Server can support various inter-organizational collaborative
knowledge-based applications such as a Web-based negotiation system, supply chains, dynamic workflow management system, Knowledge
Networks, and transnational information system.
On the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems 2006: OTM 2006 Workshops, OTM Confederated International Workshops and Posters, AWeSOMe, CAMS, COMINF, IS, KSinBIT, MIOS-CIAO, MONET, OnToContent, ORM, PerSys, OTM Academy Doctoral Consortium, RDDS, SWWS, and SeBGIS 2006, Montpellier, France, October 29 - November 3, 2006. Proceedings, Part I; 01/2006
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current Web technology is not suitable for representing knowledge nor sharing it among organizations over the Web. There
is a rapidly increasing need for exchanging and linking knowledge over the Web, especially when several sellers and buyers
come together on the Web to form a virtual marketplace. Virtual marketplaces are increasingly being required to become more
intelligent and active, thus leading to an active virtual marketplace concept. This paper explains an infrastructure called
the knowledge network that enables sharing of knowledge over the Web and thus effectively supports the formation of virtual
marketplaces on the Web. The concept of an active virtual marketplace can be realized using this infrastructure by allowing
buyers and sellers to effectively specify their knowledge in the form of events, triggers, and rules. The knowledge network
can actively distribute and process these knowledge elements to help buyers and sellers to easily find each other. An example
active virtual marketplace application has been developed using the knowledge network.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This chapter presents the design and implementation of an Event-Trigger-Rule-based electronic supply-chain management system
(ESCM). The ESCM is constructed by a network of Knowledge Web Servers, each of which consists of a Web server, an Event Manager,
an Event-Trigger-Rule (ETR) Server, a Knowledge Profile Manager, a Persistent Object Manager, a Metadata Manager, a Negotiation
Server, and a Cost-Benefit Evaluation Server. Together, they manage the activities and interactions among Manufacturers, Distributors
and Retailers. ESCM offers a number of features. First and foremost is the flexibility offered to business entities in defining
their own rules according to their own business strategies. Second, since the rules that control the business activities are
installed and processed by the multiple copies of the ETR server installed at business entities' individual sites, their privacy
and security are safeguarded. Third, ESCM's event, event filtering and event notification mechanisms keep both Buyers and
Suppliers better informed with more timely information about business events so that they or their software systems can take
the proper actions in different business processes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With the popularity of the Web services technology, more and more software systems?functionalities become available by being published and registered as Web services. Registered Web services need to be dynamically combined to form composite services when individual simple services fail to meet service requestors?complex service needs. In this article, we propose a semi-automatic approach to composite Web services discovery, description and invocation. We present an intelligent registry with constraint matching capabilities to support composite service discovery and description. It provides a user interface to interactively compose a service request. It then uses a semi-automatic mechanism and a search algorithm to construct a composite service template that satisfies the request. The operations of the template are bound to registered service operations by constraint matching subsequently. The resulting composite service is specified in the Web Services Flow Language. A composite service processor is designed to execute composite services by invoking the component service operations of various service providers.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Business organizations are often faced with decision situations in which the costs and benefits of some competing business specifications such as business offers, product specifications, or negotiation proposals need to be evaluated in order to select the best or desirable ones. In e-business, there is a need to automate the cost–benefit evaluation process to support decision making. This paper presents a general-purpose Cost–Benefit Evaluation Server (CBES) and its underlying Cost–Benefit Decision Model (CBDM), which models benefits in terms of costs and logical scoring and aggregation of preferences associated with products and services. The Server provides build-time tools for users to specify preference and cost information and a run-time engine to perform cost–benefit evaluations. A business scenario involving supplier selection and automated negotiation is given to illustrate the application of the Server and its four evaluation modes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper presents an infrastructure and a mechanism for achieving dynamic Inter-enterprise workflow management using e-services provided by collaborative e-business enterprises. E-services are distributed services that can be accessed programmatically on the Internet, using SOAP messages and the HTTP protocol. In this work, we categorize e-services according to their business types and manage them in a UDDI-enabled constraint-based Broker Server. E-service requests are specified in the activities of a process model according to some standardized e-service templates and are bound to the proper service providers at run-time by using a constraint-based, dynamic service binding mechanism. The workflow management system is dynamic in the sense that the actual business organizations, which take part in a business process, are not determined until run-time. We have extended the traditional workflow process modeling by including e-service requests in activity specifications and extended the Web Service Description Language (WSDL) by including constraints in both service specifications and service requests so that the selection of e-service providers can be more accurately performed.
Electronic Commerce Research 12/2002; 3(1):9-24. · 0.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper presents a solution to achieve dynamic Inter-enterprise workflow management using the eservices provided by collaborative e-business enterprises. E-services are distributed services that can be accessed programmatically on the Internet, using SOAP messages and the HTTP protocol. We categorize e-services according to their business types and manage them in an UDDI-enabled Broker Server. By E-service requests are specified in the activities of a process model according to some standardized e-service templates and are bound to the proper service providers at run-time by using a constraint-based, dynamic service binding mechanism. The workflow management system is dynamic in the sense that the actual business organizations that take part in a business process are not determined until run-time.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As the global marketplace becomes more and more competitive, business organizations often need to team up and operate as a virtual enterprise in order to utilize the best of their resources for achieving their common business goals. Since the business environment of a virtual enterprise is highly dynamic, it is necessary to develop a workflow management technology that is capable of handling dynamic workflows across enterprise boundaries. This paper describes a dynamic workflow model (DWM) and a dynamic workflow management system (DynaFlow) for modeling and controlling the execution of inter-organizational business processes. DWM enables the specification of dynamic properties associated with a business process model. It extends the underlying model of the WfMC's WPDL by adding connectors, events, triggers, and rules as its modeling constructs, encapsulating activity definitions, and allowing e-service requests to be included as a part of the activity specification. Using DWM as the underlying model, DynaFlow makes use of an event and rule server to trigger rules during the enactment of a workflow process to enforce business constraints and policies and/or to modify the process model at run-time. A constraint-based, dynamic service binding mechanism is used to dynamically bind e-service requests to e-services that satisfy some constraint specifications. Index Items: dynamic workflow model, dynamic workflow management system, business process, e-service, e-service constraint, e-service request constraint, business event, business rule, dynamic service binding. 3 1.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The emerging Web service technology has enabled the development of Internet-based applications that integrate distributed
and heterogeneous systems and processes which are owned by different organizations. Compared to centralized systems and client-server
environments, the Web service environment is much more dynamic and security for such an environment poses unique challenges.
For example, an organization (e.g., a service provider or a service broker) cannot predetermine the users of its resources
and fix their access privileges. Also, service providers come and go. The users of services must have some assurances about
the services and the organizations that provide the services. Thus, the enforcement of security constraints cannot be static
and tightly coupled. The notion of trust agreement must be established to delegate the responsibility of certification of
unknown users, services, and organizations. In this paper, we describe a Trust-based Security Model (TSM) that incorporate
the traditional security concepts (e.g., roles, resources, operations) with new security concepts that are specific to the
Web service environment. The security concepts of TSM are then applied to the general Web service model to include security
considerations. Finally, an event-driven, rule-based approach to the enforcement of security in a Web service environment
Technologies for E-Services, Third International Workshop, TES 2002, Hong Kong, China, August 23-24, 2002, Proceedings; 01/2002
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the specification, generation and exchange of business ob-jects in the context of electronic commerce. Common business objects have been defined for product catalogs, purchase orders and other business entities. However, no business objects have been defined and implemented for supporting automated business negotiations even though business negotiation is very much an integral part of business activities. In this work, we have designed and implemented a set of business negotiation objects for supporting the bargaining type of business negotiations. These objects define the operations and information contents needed for negotiation parties to express their requirements and constraints during a bargaining proc-ess. They correspond to a set of negotiation primitives, which is a superset of the negotiation-related primitives defined in two popular languages: ACL and COOL. The implementation of these objects is patterned after the business object documents in the XML format proposed by the Open Applications Group, thus conforming to the established standard. The incorporation of several types of constraint specifications in these business nego-tiation objects provides the negotiation parties and the negotiation servers that represent them much expressive power in specifying call-for-proposals and proposals. Two synchronization problems and their solutions associ-ated with the withdrawal and modification of negotiation proposals are addressed and presented in this paper. The use of these business negotiation objects in a bilateral bargaining protocol is also presented. We have vali-dated the utility of these objects in an integrated network environment, which consists of two replicated negotia-tion servers, two commercial products, and some other university research systems that form a supply chain.
Group Decision and Negotiation 01/2002; 11:23-44. · 1.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper describes the design and implementation of a replicable, Internet-based negotiation server for conducting bargaining-type
negotiations between enterprises involved in e-commerce and e-business. Enterprises can be buyers and sellers of products/services
or participants of a complex supply chain engaged in purchasing, planning, and scheduling. Multiple copies of our server can
be installed to complement the services of Web servers. Each enterprise can install or select a trusted negotiation server
to represent his/her interests. Web-based GUI tools are used during the build-time registration process to specify the requirements,
constraints, and rules that represent negotiation policies and strategies, preference scoring of different data conditions,
and aggregation methods for deriving a global cost-benefit score for the item(s) under negotiation. The registration information
is used by the negotiation servers to automatically conduct bargaining type negotiations on behalf of their clients. In this
paper, we present the architecture of our implementation as well as a framework for automated negotiations, and describe a
number of communication primitives which are used in the underlying negotiation protocol. A constraint satisfaction processor
(CSP) is used to evaluate a negotiation proposal or counterproposal against the registered requirements and constraints of
a client company. In case of a constraint violation, an event is posted to trigger the execution of negotiation strategic
rules, which either automatically relax the violated constraint, ask for human intervention, invoke an application, or perform
other remedial operations. An Event-Trigger-Rule (ETR) server is used to manage events, triggers, and rules. Negotiation strategic
rules can be added or modified at run-time. A cost-benefit analysis component is used to perform quantitative analysis of
alternatives. The use of negotiation servers to conduct automated negotiation has been demonstrated in the context of an integrated
supply chain scenario.
The VLDB Journal 07/2001; 10(1):72-90. · 1.40 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the highly competitive and rapidly changing and expanding global marketplace, business organizations often form a virtual enterprise with others to achieve various business goals. Traditional workflow technology is used to coordinate the activities of an organization. Since the business environment of a virtual enterprise is highly dynamic, it is necessary to develop a workflow management technology that is capable of handling dynamic workflows across enterprise boundaries. This paper describes the development of a dynamic workflow model and a dynamic workflow management system for modeling and controlling the execution of inter-organizational business processes in a virtual enterprise environment. The dynamic inter-organizational workflows are used to integrate e-services provided by the participating organizations. The dynamic workflow model (DWM) described in this paper enables the specification of dynamic properties associated with a business process model. It is an extension of the underlying model of the Workflow Management Coalition's Workflow Process Definition Language by adding connectors, events, triggers and rules as modeling constructs, encapsulating activity definitions, and supporting e-service requests. We also introduce a constraint-based, dynamic service binding mechanism for the enactment of business processes. The technique for run-time modifications of the process models to alter the course of executing workflow instances is also addressed in our work. The dynamic workflow management system is a part of an information infrastructure being developed for supporting Internet-based Scalable E-business Enterprise (ISEE).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: How to apply negotiation principles to E-business is an important topic for both negotiation research and E-business research. Automation of E-business negotiation is even more challenging due to the inherent complexity of business negotiations. Some research has been done in this area, but a comprehensive model for automated E-business negotiation is still missing. Furthermore, existing work in this area does not consider the negotiation process from a full life cycle perspective; therefore valuable information from a previous negotiation is not properly used for the future negotiations. This report discusses two important issues related to automated E-business negotiation: model and life cycle. A system architecture based on the model and the life cycle is proposed.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: When different business organizations come together to conduct a joint business in a virtual enterprise environment, their application systems need to have a convenient way to specify the services needed from other systems and to transfer data needed by these services. The transferred data needs to be validated and, in some cases, mediated to meet the constraints and data representation requirements of both the source and target application systems. Ideally, the validation and mediation tasks should be done outside of the legacy application systems so that these systems do not have to be modified. In this work, the Business Object Documents (BODs) introduced by the Open Applications Group (OAG) are used for specifying business operations and transferring data among application systems. We use an active object model to model BODs. The model captures not only the data attributes and methods associated with these business objects, but also events and rules for specifying and triggering the enforcement of attribute constraints and inter-attribute constraints and the activation of data mediation operations. The conceptual models of these BODs with their added semantics are used to generate entity classes, converters and skeletal programs needed for enforcing constraints and for converting data. These generated object classes and software components in Java constitute the platform-independent adapters through which heterogeneous application systems inter-operate over CORBA and RMI communication infrastructures. A distributed approach to data validation and mediation is used. It allows the generated code for validation and mediation to be distributed and processed at different sites, thus avoiding the potential network bottleneck of a centralized approach to the validation and mediation of business object documents.
Journal of Systems Integration 01/2001; 10:307-328.