S. Udry

University of Geneva, Genève, Geneva, Switzerland

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Publications (784)1993.41 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: GJ758 B is a brown dwarf companion to a nearby (15.76 pc) solar-type, metal-rich (M/H = +0.2 dex) main-sequence star (G9V) that was discovered with Subaru/HiCIAO in 2009. From previous studies, it has drawn attention as being the coldest (~600K) companion ever directly imaged around a neighboring star. We present new high-contrast data obtained during the commissioning of the SPHERE instrument at the VLT. The data was obtained in Y-, J-, H-, and Ks-bands with the dual-band imaging (DBI) mode of IRDIS, providing a broad coverage of the full near-infrared (near-IR) range at higher contrast and better spectral sampling than previously reported. In this new set of high-quality data, we report the re-detection of the companion, as well as the first detection of a new candidate closer-in to the star. We use the new 8 photometric points for an extended comparison of GJ758 B with empirical objects and 4 families of atmospheric models. From comparison to empirical object, we estimate a T8 spectral type, but none of the comparison object can accurately represent the observed near-IR fluxes of GJ758 B. From comparison to atmospheric models, we attribute a Teff = 600K $\pm$ 100K, but we find that no atmospheric model can adequately fit all the fluxes of GJ758 B. The photometry of the new candidate companion is broadly consistent with L-type objects, but a second epoch with improved photometry is necessary to clarify its status. The new astrometry of GJ758 B shows a significant proper motion since the last epoch. We use this result to improve the determination of the orbital characteristics using two fitting approaches, Least-Square Monte Carlo and Markov Chain Monte Carlo. Finally, we analyze the sensitivity of our data to additional closer-in companions and reject the possibility of other massive brown dwarf companions down to 4-5 AU. [abridged]
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 12/2015; · 4.38 Impact Factor

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics 11/2015; DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201526729 · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The system of four planets around HR8799 offers a unique opportunity to probe the physics and chemistry at play in the atmospheres of self-luminous young (~30 Myr) planets. We recently obtained new photometry of the four planets and low-resolution (R~30) spectra of HR8799 d and e with the SPHERE instrument (paper III). In this paper (paper IV), we compare the available spectra and photometry of the planets to known objects and atmospheric models (BT-SETTL14, Cloud-AE60, Exo-REM) to characterize the atmospheric properties of the planets. We find that HR8799d and e properties are well reproduced by those of L6-L8 dusty dwarfs discovered in the field, among which some are candidate members of young nearby associations. No known object reproduces well the properties of planets b and c. Nevertheless, we find that the spectra and WISE photometry of peculiar and/or young early-T dwarfs reddened by submicron grains made of corundum, iron, enstatite, or forsterite successfully reproduce the SED of these two planets. Our analysis confirms that only the Exo-REM models with thick clouds fit (within 2{\sigma}) the whole set of spectrophotometric datapoints available for HR8799 d and e for Teff = 1200 K, log g in the range 3.0-4.5, and M/H=+0.5. The models still fail to reproduce the SED of HR8799c and b. The determination of the metallicity, log g, and cloud thickness are degenerate. We conclude that an enhanced content in dust and decreased CIA of H2 is certainly responsible for the deviation of the properties of the planet with respect to field dwarfs. The analysis suggests in addition that HR8799c and b have later spectral types than the two other planets, and therefore could both have lower masses.
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    ABSTRACT: [Abridged] Context. The young systems PZ Tel and HD 1160, hosting known low-mass companions, were observed during the commissioning of the new planet finder SPHERE with several imaging and spectroscopic modes. Aims. We aim to refine the physical properties and architecture of both systems. Methods. We use SPHERE commissioning data and REM observations, as well as literature and unpublished data from VLT/SINFONI, VLT/NaCo, Gemini/NICI, and Keck/NIRC2. Results. We derive new photometry and confirm the nearly daily photometric variability of PZ Tel A. Using literature data spanning 38 yr, we show that the star also exhibits a long-term variability trend. The 0.63-3.8 mic SED of PZ Tel B allows us to revise its properties: spectral type M7+/-1, Teff=2700+/-100 K, log(g)<4.5 dex, log(L/L_Sun)=-2.51+/-0.10 dex, and mass 38-72 MJ. The 1-3.8 mic SED of HD 1160 B suggests a massive brown dwarf or a low-mass star with spectral type M5.5-7.0, Teff=3000+/-100 K, [M/H]=-0.5-0.0 dex, log(L/L_Sun)=-2.81+/-0.10 dex, and mass 39-168 MJ. We confirm the deceleration and high eccentricity (e>0.66) of PZ Tel B. For e<0.9, the inclination, longitude of the ascending node, and time of periastron passage are well constrained. The system is seen close to an edge-on geometry. We reject other brown dwarf candidates outside 0.25" for both systems, and massive giant planets (>4 MJ) outside 0.5" for the PZ Tel system. We also show that K1-K2 color can be used with YJH low-resolution spectra to identify young L-type companions, provided high photometric accuracy (<0.05 mag) is achieved. Conclusions. SPHERE opens new horizons in the study of young brown dwarfs and giant exoplanets thanks to high-contrast imaging capabilities at optical and near-infrared wavelengths, as well as high signal-to-noise spectroscopy in the near-infrared from low (R~30-50) to medium resolutions (R~350).
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    ABSTRACT: Context. The presence of a small-mass planet (M$_p<$0.1\,M$_{Jup}$) seems, to date, not to depend on metallicity, however, theoretical simulations have shown that stars with subsolar metallicities may be favoured for harbouring smaller planets. A large, dedicated survey of metal-poor stars with the HARPS spectrograph has thus been carried out to search for Neptunes and super-Earths. Aims. In this paper, we present the analysis of \object{HD175607}, an old G6 star with metallicity [Fe/H] = -0.62. We gathered 119 radial velocity measurements in 110 nights over a time span of more than nine years. Methods. The radial velocities were analysed using Lomb-Scargle periodograms, a genetic algorithm, a Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis, and a Gaussian processes analysis. The spectra were also used to derive stellar properties. Several activity indicators were analysed to study the effect of stellar activity on the radial velocities. Results. We find evidence for the presence of a small Neptune-mass planet (M$_{p}\sin i = 8.98\pm1.10$\,M$_{\oplus}$) orbiting this star with an orbital period $P = 29.01\pm0.02$\, days in a slightly eccentric orbit ($e=0.11\pm0.08$). The period of this Neptune is close to the estimated rotational period of the star. However, from a detailed analysis of the radial velocities together with the stellar activity, we conclude that the best explanation of the signal is indeed the presence of a planetary companion rather than stellar related. An additional longer period signal ($P\sim 1400$\,d) is present in the data, for which more measurements are needed to constrain its nature and its properties. Conclusions. HD\,175607 is the most metal-poor FGK dwarf with a detected low-mass planet amongst the currently known planet hosts. This discovery may thus have important consequences for planet formation and evolution theories.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 11/2015; DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201526905 · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The planetary system discovered around the young A-type HR8799 provides a unique laboratory to: a) test planet formation theories, b) probe the diversity of system architectures at these separations, and c) perform comparative (exo)planetology. We present and exploit new near-infrared images and integral-field spectra of the four gas giants surrounding HR8799 obtained with SPHERE, the new planet finder instrument at the Very Large Telescope, during the commissioning and science verification phase of the instrument (July-December 2014). With these new data, we contribute to completing the spectral energy distribution of these bodies in the 1.0-2.5 $\mu$m range. We also provide new astrometric data, in particular for planet e, to further constrain the orbits. We used the infrared dual-band imager and spectrograph (IRDIS) subsystem to obtain pupil-stabilized, dual-band $H2H3$ (1.593 $\mu$m, 1.667 $\mu$m), $K1K2$ (2.110 $\mu$m, 2.251 $\mu$m), and broadband $J$ (1.245 $\mu$m) images of the four planets. IRDIS was operated in parallel with the integral field spectrograph (IFS) of SPHERE to collect low-resolution ($R\sim30$), near-infrared (0.94-1.64 $\mu$m) spectra of the two innermost planets HR8799d and e. The data were reduced with dedicated algorithms, such as the Karhunen-Lo\`eve image projection (KLIP), to reveal the planets. We used the so-called negative planets injection technique to extract their photometry, spectra, and measure their positions. We illustrate the astrometric performance of SPHERE through sample orbital fits compatible with SPHERE and literature data.
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    Dataset: 26992

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    ABSTRACT: We present the analysis of the entire HARPS observations of three stars that host planetary systems: HD1461, HD40307, and HD204313. The data set spans eight years and contains more than 200 nightly averaged velocity measurements for each star. This means that it is sensitive to both long-period and low-mass planets and also to the effects induced by stellar activity cycles. We modelled the data using Keplerian functions that correspond to planetary candidates and included the short- and long-term effects of magnetic activity. A Bayesian approach was taken both for the data modelling, which allowed us to include information from activity proxies such as $\log{(R'_{\rm HK})}$ in the velocity modelling, and for the model selection, which permitted determining the number of significant signals in the system. The Bayesian model comparison overcomes the limitations inherent to the traditional periodogram analysis. We report an additional super-Earth planet in the HD1461 system. Four out of the six planets previously reported for HD40307 are confirmed and characterised. We discuss the remaining two proposed signals. In particular, we show that when the systematic uncertainty associated with the techniques for estimating model probabilities are taken into account, the current data are not conclusive concerning the existence of the habitable-zone candidate HD40307 g. We also fully characterise the Neptune-mass planet that orbits HD204313 in 34.9 days.
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    ABSTRACT: The HERMES spectrograph installed on the 1.2-m Mercator telescope has been used to monitor the radial velocity of 13 low-metallicity carbon stars, among which 7 Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor (CEMP) stars and 6 CH stars. All stars but one show clear evidence for binarity. New orbits are obtained for 8 systems. The sample covers an extended range in orbital periods, extending from 3.4 d (for the dwarf carbon star HE 0024-2523) to about 54 yr (for the CH star HD 26, the longest known among barium, CH and extrinsic S stars). Three systems exhibit low-amplitude velocity variations with periods close to 1 yr superimposed on a long-term trend. In the absence of an accurate photometric monitoring of these systems, it is not clear yet whether these variations are the signature of a very low-mass companion, or of regular envelope pulsations. The period - eccentricity (P - e) diagram for the 40 low-metallicity carbon stars with orbits now available shows no difference between CH and CEMP-s stars (the latter corresponding to those CEMP stars enriched in s-process elements, as are CH stars). We suggest that they must be considered as one and the same family and that their different names only stem from historical reasons. Indeed, these two families have as well very similar mass-function distributions, corresponding to companions with masses in the range 0.5 - 0.7 Msun, indicative of white-dwarf companions, adopting 0.8 - 0.9 Msun for the primary component. This result confirms that CH and CEMP-s stars obey the same mass-transfer scenario as their higher-metallicity analogs, the barium stars. The P - e diagrams of barium, CH and CEMP-s stars are indeed very similar. They reveal two different groups of systems: one with short orbital periods (P < 1000 d) and mostly circular or almost circular orbits, and another with longer-period and eccentric (e > 0.1) orbits.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 10/2015; DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201526992 · 4.38 Impact Factor

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics 10/2015; DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201526822 · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the 1980s, excess infrared emission was discovered around main-sequence stars; subsequent direct-imaging observations revealed orbiting disks of cold dust to be the source. These ' debris disks' were thought to be by-products of planet formation because they often exhibited morphological and brightness asymmetries that may result from gravitational perturbation by planets. This was proved to be true for the β Pictoris system, in which the known planet generates an observable warp in the disk. The nearby, young, unusually active late-type star AU Microscopii hosts a well-studied edge-on debris disk; earlier observations in the visible and near-infrared found asymmetric localized structures in the form of intensity variations along the midplane of the disk beyond a distance of 20 astronomical units. Here we report high-contrast imaging that reveals a series of five large-scale features in the southeast side of the disk, at projected separations of 10-60 astronomical units, persisting over intervals of 1-4 years. All these features appear to move away from the star at projected speeds of 4-10 kilometres per second, suggesting highly eccentric or unbound trajectories if they are associated with physical entities. The origin, localization, morphology and rapid evolution of these features are difficult to reconcile with current theories.
    Nature 10/2015; 526(7572):230-232. DOI:10.1038/nature15705 · 41.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The current goal of exoplanetary science is not only focused on detecting but characterizing planetary systems in hopes of understanding how they formed, evolved, and relate to the Solar System. The Transit Ephemeris Refinement and Monitoring Survey (TERMS) combines both radial velocity (RV) and photometric data in order to achieve unprecedented ground-based precision in the fundamental properties of nearby, bright, exoplanet-hosting systems. Here we discuss HD 6434 and its planet, HD 6434b, which has a M_p*sin(i) = 0.44 M_J mass and orbits every 22.0170 days with an eccentricity of 0.146. We have combined previously published RV data with new measurements to derive a predicted transit duration of ~6 hrs, or 0.25 days, and a transit probability of 4%. Additionally, we have photometrically observed the planetary system using both the 0.9m and 1.0m telescopes at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, covering 75.4% of the predicted transit window. We reduced the data using the automated TERMS Photometry Pipeline, developed to ensure consistent and accurate results. We determine a dispositive null result for the transit of HD 6434b, excluding the full transit to a depth of 0.9% and grazing transit due to impact parameter limitations to a depth of 1.6%
    The Astronomical Journal 10/2015; 150(6). DOI:10.1088/0004-6256/150/6/169 · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of KELT-14b and KELT-15b, two hot Jupiters from the KELT-South survey. KELT-14b, an independent discovery of the recently announced WASP-122b, is an inflated Jupiter mass planet that orbits a $\sim5.0^{+0.3}_{-0.7}$ Gyr, $V$ = 11.0, G2 star that is near the main sequence turnoff. The host star, KELT-14 (TYC 7638-981-1), has an inferred mass $M_{*}$=$1.18_{-0.07}^{+0.05}$ M$_{\odot}$ and radius $R_{*}$=$1.37\pm{-0.08}$ R$_{\odot}$, and has T$_{eff}$=$5802_{-92}^{+95}$ K, $\log{g}$ = $4.23_{-0.04}^{+0.05}$ and [Fe/H] = $0.33\pm{-0.09}$. The planet orbits with a period of $1.7100588 \pm 0.0000025$ days ($T_{0}$=2457091.02863$\pm$0.00047) and has a radius R$_{P}$=$1.52_{-0.11}^{+0.12}$ R$_{J}$ and mass M$_{P}$ = $1.196\pm0.072$ M$_{J}$, and the eccentricity is consistent with zero. KELT-15b is another inflated Jupiter mass planet that orbits a $\sim$ $4.6^{+0.5}_{-0.4}$ Gyr, $V$ = 11.2, G0 star (TYC 8146-86-1) that is near the "blue hook" stage of evolution prior to the Hertzsprung gap, and has an inferred mass $M_{*}$=$1.181_{-0.050}^{+0.051}$ M$_{\odot}$ and radius $R_{*}$=$1.48_{-0.04}^{+0.09}$ R$_{\odot}$, and T$_{eff}$=$6003_{-52}^{+56}$ K, $\log{g}$=$4.17_{-0.04}^{+0.02}$ and [Fe/H]=$0.05\pm0.03$. The planet orbits on a period of $3.329441 \pm 0.000016$ days ($T_{0}$ = 2457029.1663$\pm$0.0073) and has a radius R$_{P}$=$1.443_{-0.057}^{+0.11}$ R$_{J}$ and mass M$_{P}$=$0.91_{-0.22}^{+0.21}$ M$_{J}$ and an eccentricity consistent with zero. KELT-14b has the second largest expected emission signal in the K-band for known transiting planets brighter than $K<10.5$. Both KELT-14b and KELT-15b are predicted to have large enough emission signals that their secondary eclipses should be detectable using ground-based observatories.
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of two additional planetary companions to WASP-41 and WASP-47. WASP-41 c is a planet of minimum mass 3.18 $\pm$ 0.20 M$_{\rm Jup}$, eccentricity 0.29 $\pm$ 0.02 and orbiting in 421 $\pm$ 2 days. WASP-47 c is a planet of minimum mass 1.24 $\pm$ 0.22 M$_{\rm Jup}$, eccentricity 0.13 $\pm$ 0.10 and orbiting in 572 $\pm$ 7 days. Unlike most of the planetary systems including a hot Jupiter, these two systems with a hot Jupiter have a long period planet located at only $\sim$1 AU from their host star. WASP-41 is a rather young star known to be chromospherically active. To differentiate its magnetic cycle from the radial velocity effect due the second planet, we use the emission in the H$\alpha$ line and find this indicator well suited to detect the stellar activity pattern and the magnetic cycle. The analysis of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect induced by WASP-41 b suggests that the planet could be misaligned, though an aligned orbit cannot be excluded. WASP-47 has recently been found to host two additional transiting super Earths. With such an unprecedented architecture, the WASP-47 system will be very important for the understanding of planetary migration.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 09/2015; DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201526965 · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of KELT-10b, the first transiting exoplanet discovered using the KELT-South telescope. KELT-10b is a highly inflated sub-Jupiter mass planet transiting a relatively bright $V = 10.7$ star (TYC 8378-64-1), with T$_{eff}$ = $5948\pm74$ K, $\log{g}$ = $4.319_{-0.030}^{+0.020}$ and [Fe/H] = $0.09_{-0.10}^{+0.11}$, an inferred mass M$_{*}$ = $1.112_{-0.061}^{+0.055}$ M$_{\odot}$ and radius R$_{*}$ = $1.209_{-0.035}^{+0.047}$ R$_{\odot}$. The planet has a radius R$_{P}$ = $1.399_{-0.049}^{+0.069}$ R$_{J}$ and mass M$_{P}$ = $0.679_{-0.038}^{+0.039}$ M$_{J}$. The planet has an eccentricity consistent with zero and a semi-major axis $a$ = $0.05250_{-0.00097}^{+0.00086}$ AU. The best fitting linear ephemeris is $T_{0}$ = 2457066.72045$\pm$0.00027 BJD$_{TDB}$ and P = 4.1662739$\pm$0.0000063 days. This planet joins a group of highly inflated transiting exoplanets with a radius much larger and a mass much less than those of Jupiter. The planet, which boasts deep transits of 1.4%, has a relatively high equilibrium temperature of T$_{eq}$ = $1377_{-23}^{+28}$ K, assuming zero albedo and perfect heat redistribution. KELT-10b receives an estimated insolation of $0.817_{-0.054}^{+0.068}$ $\times$ 10$^9$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$, which places it far above the insolation threshold above which hot Jupiters exhibit increasing amounts of radius inflation. Evolutionary analysis of the host star suggests that KELT-10b is unlikely to survive beyond the current subgiant phase, due to a concomitant in-spiral of the planet over the next $\sim$1 Gyr. The planet transits a relatively bright star which is accessible to large telescopes and exhibits the third largest transit depth of all transiting exoplanets with V $<$ 11 in the southern hemisphere, making it a promising candidate for future atmospheric characterization studies.
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    ABSTRACT: We present the discovery by the WASP-South survey of three planets transiting moderately bright stars (V ~ 11). WASP-120b is a massive (5.0MJup) planet in a 3.6-day orbit that we find likely to be eccentric (e = 0.059+0.025-0.018) around an F5 star. WASP-122b is a hot-Jupiter (1.37MJup, 1.79RJup) in a 1.7-day orbit about a G4 star. Our predicted transit depth variation cause by the atmosphere of WASP-122b suggests it is well suited to characterisation. WASP-123b is a hot-Jupiter (0.92MJup, 1.33RJup) in a 3.0-day orbit around an old (~ 7 Gyr) G5 star.
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we explore the possibility that the recently detected reflected light signal of 51\,Peg\,b could be caused by a ring system around the planet. We use a simple model to compare the observed signal with the expected signal from a short-period giant planet with rings. We also use simple dynamical arguments to understand the possible geometry of such a system. We provide evidence that, to a good approximation, the observations are compatible with the signal expected from a ringed planet, assuming that the rings are non-coplanar with the orbital plane. However, based on dynamical arguments, we also show that this configuration is unlikely. In the case of coplanar rings we then demonstrate that the incident flux on the ring surface is about 2\% the value received by the planet, a value that renders the ring explanation unlikely. The results suggest that the signal observed cannot in principle be explained by a planet+ring system. We discuss, however, the possibility of using reflected light spectra to detect and characterize the presence of rings around short-period planets. Finally, we show that ring systems could have already been detected by photometric transit campaigns, but their signal could have been easily misinterpreted by the expected light curve of an eclipsing binary.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 09/2015; 583. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201526673 · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present here the detection of a system of four low-mass planets around the bright (V=5.5) and close-by (6.5 pc) star HD219134. This is the first result of the Rocky Planet Search program with HARPS-N on the TNG in La Palma. The inner planet orbits the star in 3.0937 +/-0.0004 days, on a quasi-circular orbit with a semi-major axis of 0.0382 +/- 0.0003 AU. Spitzer observations allowed us to detect the transit of the planet in front of the star making HD219134b the nearest known transiting planet to date. From the amplitude of the radial-velocity variation (2.33 +/- 0.24 m/s) and observed depth of the transit (359 +/- 38 ppm), the planet mass and radius are estimated to be 4.46 +/- 0.47 M_{\oplus} and 1.606 +/- 0.086 R_{\oplus} leading to a mean density of 5.89 +/- 1.17 g/cc, suggesting a rocky composition. One additional planet with minimum mass of 2.67 +/- 0.59 M_{\oplus} moves on a close-in, quasi-circular orbit with a period of 6.765 +/- 0.005 days. The third planet in the system has a period of 46.78 +/- 0.16 days and a minimum mass of 8.7 +/- 1.1 M{\oplus}, at 0.234 +/- 0.002 AU from the star. Its eccentricity is 0.32 +/- 0.14. The period of this planet is close to the rotational period of the star estimated from variations of activity indicators (42.3 +/- 0.1 days). The planetary origin of the signal is, however, the preferred solution as no indication of variation at the corresponding frequency is observed for activity-sensitive parameters. Finally, a fourth additional longer-period planet of mass of 62 +/- 6 M_{\oplus} orbits the star in 1190 days, on an eccentric orbit (e=0.27 +/- 0.11) at a distance of 2.14 +/- 0.27 AU.
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    ABSTRACT: We explore the possibility that the stellar relative abundances of different species can be used to constrain the bulk abundances of known transiting rocky planets. We use high resolution spectra to derive stellar parameters and chemical abundances for Fe, Si, Mg, O, and C in three stars hosting low mass, rocky planets: CoRoT-7, Kepler-10, and Kepler-93. These planets follow the same line along the mass-radius diagram, pointing toward a similar composition. The derived abundance ratios are compared with the solar values. With a simple stoichiometric model, we estimate the iron mass fraction in each planet, assuming stellar composition. We show that in all cases, the iron mass fraction inferred from the mass-radius relationship seems to be in good agreement with the iron abundance derived from the host star's photospheric composition. The results suggest that stellar abundances can be used to add constraints on the composition of orbiting rocky planets.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 07/2015; 580. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201526850 · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exoplanets orbiting close to their parent stars may lose some fraction of their atmospheres because of the extreme irradiation. Atmospheric mass loss primarily affects low-mass exoplanets, leading to the suggestion that hot rocky planets might have begun as Neptune-like, but subsequently lost all of their atmospheres; however, no confident measurements have hitherto been available. The signature of this loss could be observed in the ultraviolet spectrum, when the planet and its escaping atmosphere transit the star, giving rise to deeper and longer transit signatures than in the optical spectrum. Here we report that in the ultraviolet the Neptune-mass exoplanet GJ 436b (also known as Gliese 436b) has transit depths of 56.3 ± 3.5% (1σ), far beyond the 0.69% optical transit depth. The ultraviolet transits repeatedly start about two hours before, and end more than three hours after the approximately one hour optical transit, which is substantially different from one previous claim (based on an inaccurate ephemeris). We infer from this that the planet is surrounded and trailed by a large exospheric cloud composed mainly of hydrogen atoms. We estimate a mass-loss rate in the range of about 10(8)-10(9) grams per second, which is far too small to deplete the atmosphere of a Neptune-like planet in the lifetime of the parent star, but would have been much greater in the past.
    Nature 06/2015; 522(7557):459-61. DOI:10.1038/nature14501 · 41.46 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

15k Citations
1,993.41 Total Impact Points


  • 1970-2015
    • University of Geneva
      • Department of Astronomy
      Genève, Geneva, Switzerland
  • 2010-2013
    • University of Porto
      • Departamento de Física e Astronomia
      Oporto, Porto, Portugal
  • 2012
    • The Royal Observatory, Edinburgh
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2005-2010
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • University of Aveiro
      Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal
    • University of Grenoble
      Grenoble, Rhône-Alpes, France
  • 2009
    • Pierre and Marie Curie University - Paris 6
      • Institut d'astrophysique de Paris
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2008
    • National Institute of Astrophysics
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2000-2006
    • Universität Bern
      • Physics Institute
      Berna, Bern, Switzerland
    • Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias
      San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Canary Islands, Spain
  • 2003-2005
    • University of Lisbon
      Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
  • 2002-2005
    • University of Santiago, Chile
      CiudadSantiago, Santiago Metropolitan, Chile
    • Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte
      • Departamento de Geofísica
      Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil
  • 2001
    • Observatoire de Haute-Provence
      Manosque, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France