R A McLellan

Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden

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Publications (8)29.41 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The human CYP2A6 enzyme metabolizes certain drugs and pre-carcinogens and appears to be the most important enzyme for nicotine metabolism. At present, more than 10 different allelic variants are known that cause abolished or decreased enzyme activity. Genetic polymorphism in this gene might be of particular importance for an individual's need for nicotine and for susceptibility to lung and/or liver cancer. We have identified a new CYP2A6 allele (CYP2A6*12) which carries an unequal crossover between the CYP2A6 and CYP2A7 genes in intron 2. This results in a hybrid allele where the 5' regulatory region and exons 1-2 are of CYP2A7 origin and exons 3-9 are of CYP2A6 origin, resulting in 10 amino acid substitutions compared to the CYP2A6(*)1 allele. Phenotyping with the CYP2A6 substrate coumarin indicates that it causes reduced CYP2A6 activity in'vivo. Furthermore, when expressed in mammalian COS-1 cells, the enzyme variant catalyzed 7-hydroxylation of coumarin at a rate approximately 60% of that of the wild-type enzyme. The CYP2A6(*)12 allele was present at an allele frequency of 2.2% among Spaniards, but was absent in Chinese.
    Human Mutation 11/2002; 20(4):275-83. · 5.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is a human extrahepatic P450 that activates procarinogens, metabolizes 17beta-estradiol, and may well have a role in the pathogenesis of some forms of cancer. Besides rare deleterious mutations reported for the CYP1B1 gene, six single-nucleotide polymorphisms have been reported, of which four cause amino acid exchanges. We have expressed two of the common CYP1B1 alleles in yeast cells and mammalian COS-1 cells in order to functionally characterize the alleles with respect to kinetic properties and protein stability. The CYP1B1.2 variant contains the two linked amino acid substitutions R48G and A119S compared to CYP1B1.1. The kinetic parameters of two structurally unrelated CYP1B1 substrates for the two variants were examined. No kinetic differences were seen of 17beta-estradiol hydroxylation activities between the two CYP1B1 variants and an only minor increase in the apparent Km for ethoxyresorufin was observed for CYP1B1.2. It therefore appears that they have very similar catalytic properties and the substitutions do not appear to alter CYP1B1 catalytic function. The two CYP1B1 variants were similarly stable when expressed in mammalian COS-1 cells, indicating that the substitutions have no effect on protein folding or stability. The combined results indicate that these two CYP1B1 variants show very similar properties with respect to catalytic activities and protein stability and do not alter CYP1B1 function.
    Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 07/2000; 378(1):175-81. · 3.37 Impact Factor
  • Pharmacogenetics 11/1999; 9(5):657-60.
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    ABSTRACT: The polymorphic human cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) metabolises a number of drugs, activates a variety of precarcinogens and constitutes the major nicotine C-oxidase. A relationship between CYP2A6 genotype and smoking habits, as well as incidence of lung cancer, has been proposed. Two defective alleles have hitherto been identified, one of which is very common in Asian populations. Among Caucasians, an additional defective and frequently distributed allele (CYP2A6*3) has been suggested to play a protective role against nicotine addiction and cigarette consumption. Here, we have re-evaluated the genotyping method used for the CYP2A6*3 allele and found that a gene conversion in the 3' flanking region of 30-40% of CYP2A6*1 alleles results in genotype misclassification. In fact, no true CYP2A6*3 alleles were found among 100 Spaniards and 96 Chinese subjects. In one Spanish poor metaboliser of the CYP2A6 probe drug coumarin, we found two novel defective alleles. One, CYP2A6*5, encoded an unstable enzyme having a G479L substitution and the other was found to carry a novel type of CYP2A6 gene deletion (CYP2A6*4D). The results imply the presence of numerous defective as well as active CYP2A6 alleles as a consequence of CYP2A6/CYP2A7 gene conversion events. We conclude that molecular epidemiological studies concerning CYP2A6 require validated genotyping methods for accurate detection of all known defective CYP2A6 alleles.
    FEBS Letters 11/1999; 460(2):321-7. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Approximately 40% of human P450-dependent drug metabolism is carried out by polymorphic enzymes, which can cause abolished, quantitatively or qualitatively altered or enhanced drug metabolism. The latter situation is due to stable duplication, multiduplication or amplification of active genes, most likely in response to dietary components that have resulted in a selection of alleles with multiple non-inducible genes. Several examples exist where subjects carrying certain alleles suffer from a lack of drug efficacy due to ultrarapid metabolism or, alternatively, adverse effects from the drug treatment due to the presence of defective alleles. Knowledge in this field has grown rapidly and can now be applied to both drug development and clinical practice. This is facilitated by the recent development of high-throughput methods for mutation detection and oligonucleotide chips array technology for the identification of a multitude of mutations in the genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes. The outcome will allow for safer and more efficient drug therapies.
    Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 09/1999; 20(8):342-9. · 9.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 2A6 is an important human hepatic P450 which activates pre-carcinogens, oxidises some drugs and constitutes the major nicotine C-oxidase. In fact, results have been presented in the literature which suggested a relationship between the distribution of defective CYP2A6 alleles and smoking behaviour as well as cigarette consumption. In the present report, we describe the structure of a novel CYP2A locus where the whole CYP2A6 gene has been deleted, resulting in an abolished cytochrome P450 2A6-dependent metabolism. The origin of this locus is apparently due to an unequal crossover event between the 3'-flanking region of the CYP2A6 and CYP2A7 genes. A rapid PCR-based method for the detection of the CYP2A6del allele was developed and the allele frequency was 15.1% among 96 Chinese subjects, but only 1.0% in Finns (n=100) and 0.5% in Spaniards (n=100). In the Chinese population, we did not detect any CYP2A6*2 alleles using an improved genotyping procedure, in contrast to the 11-20% previously reported. It is concluded that genotyping for the CYP2A6del allele is of great importance in studies correlating, for example, smoking behaviour, pre-carcinogen activation or drug metabolism to the CYP2A6 genotype, in particular when oriental populations are investigated.
    FEBS Letters 05/1999; 448(1):105-10. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mu class glutathione S-transferase gene GSTM1 is polymorphic in humans, with approximately half of the Caucasian population being homozygous deleted for this gene. GSTM1 enzyme deficiency has been suggested to predispose people to lung and bladder cancer. Some people in a Saudi Arabian population, however, have been described previously with ultrarapid GSTM1 enzyme activity. Here we have evaluated the molecular genetic basis for this observation. Genomic DNA from two Saudi Arabian subjects exhibiting ultrarapid enzyme activity and from 13 Swedish subjects having null, one, or two GSTM1 genes were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis using the restriction enzymes EcoRI, EcoRV, and HindIII and combinations thereof. Hybridization was carried out using a full-length GSTM1 cDNA or the 5' and 3' parts of the cDNA. The restriction mapping data revealed the presence of a GST mu cluster with two GSTM1 genes in tandem situated between the GSTM2 and GSTM5 genes. A quantitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction method, which simultaneously amplified a fragment of the GSTM1 gene and the beta-globin gene, was developed, and the genomic GSTM1 copy number was determined from the GSTM1/beta-globin ratio. This method clearly separated GSTM1 +/- subjects (ratios between 0.4 and 0.7) from GSTM1 +/+ subjects (ratios between 0.8 and 1.2). The two Saudi Arabians with ultrarapid GSTM1 activities had ratios of approximately 1.5, indicating that they carried three GSTM1 genes. These results demonstrate the existence of a novel mu class GST cluster containing a duplicated active GSTM1 gene causing ultrarapid enzyme activity.
    Molecular Pharmacology 01/1998; 52(6):958-65. · 4.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The polymorphic cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) causing poor, extensive or ultrarapid metabolism of several clinically important drugs exhibits pronounced interethnic variation. Ultrarapid metabolism is caused by multiple copies of active CYP2D6 genes and recently 29% of an Ethiopian population has been shown to carry duplicated or multiduplicated CYP2D6 genes, whereas the corresponding frequency in other black, Oriental and European populations investigated is 1-2%. In order to characterize the distribution of alleles with multiple CYP2D6 copies in a neighbouring population and to characterize the CYP2D locus in general among Saudi Arabians, the CYP2D6 genotype of a Saudi Arabian population was examined using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Of 101 Saudi Arabians studied, 21 subjects had an EcoRI fragment indicative of CYP2D6 gene duplication. In contrast, only two individuals were heterozygous for a deletion of the whole gene (CYP2D6*5). The allele frequency of CYP2D6*4, the most common defective allele among Caucasians, was only 3.5% in the Saudi population. Two other alleles, CYP2D6*10 and *17, common in certain populations and which cause diminished enzyme activity, were found only at low allele frequencies of 3.0% each. These findings are in agreement with earlier Saudi Arabian phenotyping studies which reported a low frequency (1-2%) of poor metabolizers for CYP2D6 probe drugs. In conclusion, the Saudi Arabian population studied exhibited very few defective alleles and a large number of subjects carried duplicated CYP2D6 genes, implying a high conservation on functional CYP2D6 genes possibly due to dietary reasons and reveal the Saudi Arabians as an unique population in comparison with others examined.
    Pharmacogenetics 07/1997; 7(3):187-91.