R J A C Bezerra

Rio de Janeiro State University, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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Publications (20)50.57 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.) is widely used as a laxative, although potential side effects, such as toxicity and genotoxicity, have been reported. This study evaluated genotoxic and mutagenic effects of senna aqueous extract (SAE) by means of four experimental assays: inactivation of Escherichia coli cultures; bacterial growth inhibition; reverse mutation test (Mutoxitest) and DNA strand break analysis in plasmid DNA. Our results demonstrated that SAE produces single and double strand breaks in plasmid DNA in a cell free system. On the other hand, SAE was not cytotoxic or mutagenic to Escherichia coli strains tested. In effect, SAE was able to avoid H(2)O(2)-induced mutagenesis and toxicity in Escherichia coli IC203 (uvrA oxyR) and IC205 (uvrA mutM) strains, pointing to a new antioxidant/antimutagenic action of SAE.
    Toxicology in Vitro 03/2008; 22(1):212-8. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stevioside is widely used daily in many countries as a non-caloric sugar substitute. Its sweetening power is higher than that of sucrose by approximately 250-300 times, being extensively employed as a household sweetener, or added to beverages and food products. The purpose of this study was to ascertain stevioside genotoxic and cytotoxic potentiality in different biological systems, as its use continues to increase. Agarose gel electrophoresis and bacterial transformation were employed to observe the occurrence of DNA lesions. In addition to these assays, Escherichia coli strains were incubated with stevioside so that their survival fractions could be obtained. Results show absence of genotoxic activity through electrophoresis and bacterial transformation assays and drop of survival fraction of E. coli strains deficient in rec A and nth genes, suggesting that stevioside (i) is cytotoxic; (ii) could need metabolization to present deleterious effects on cells; (iii) is capable of generating lesions in DNA and pathways as base excision repair, recombination and SOS system would be important to recover these lesions.
    Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 01/2007; 293(1-2):187-92. · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: At present, more than 75% of routine nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures use technetium-99m (99mTc). The binding between 99mTc and the drug to obtain the radiopharmaceutical needs a reducing agent, with stannous chloride (SnCl2) being one of the most used. There are controversies about the cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects of SnCl2 in the literature. Thus, the approaches below were used to better understand the biological effects of this salt and its association in nuclear medicine kits [methylenediphosphonate (MDP) bone scintigraphy and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) kidney and brain scintigraphy]: (i) bacterial inactivation experiments; (ii) agarose gel electrophoresis of supercoiled and linear plasmid DNA and (iii) bacterial transformation assay. The Escherichia coli strains used here were AB1157 (wild type) and BW9091 (xthA mutant). Data obtained showed that both MDP and SnCl2 presented a high toxicity, but this was not observed when they were assayed together in the kit, thereby displaying a mutual protect effect. DTPA salt showed a moderate toxicity, and once more, the DTPA kit provided protection, compared to the SnCl2 effect alone. The results suggest a possible complex formation, either MDP-SnCl2 or DTPA-SnCl2, originating an atoxic compound. On the other hand, SnCl2-induced cell inactivation and the decrease in bacterial transformation generated by DTPA found in XthA mutant strain suggest that the lack of this enzyme could be responsible for the effects observed, being necessary to induce DNA damage repair.
    Nuclear Medicine and Biology 11/2006; 33(7):915-21. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stannous chloride (SnCl2) is a reducing chemical agent used in several man-made products. SnCl2 can generate reactive oxygen species (ROS); therefore, studies have been carried out in order to better understand its damaging action in biological systems. In this work, calf thymus DNA, triphosphate nucleotides and isolated bases were incubated with SnCl2 and the results were analyzed through UV spectrophotometry. The presence of stannous ions altered the absorption spectra of all three isolates. The amount of stannous ions associated to DNA was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Data showed that more than 40% of the initial SnCl2 concentration was present in the samples. Our results are in accordance with the damaging potential of this salt and present evidence that stannous ions can complex with DNA, inducing ROS in its vicinity, which may be responsible for the observed lesions.
    Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 01/2006; 280(1-2):173-9. · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aloe vera is a tropical plant, known in Brazil as babosa and several reputable suppliers produce a stabilized aloe gel for topic use. Since people use Aloe vera topically, they could be exposed to solar ultraviolet light in addition and it might cause a cross damage effect between these agents. The aim of this work was to investigate the biological effects of Aloe vera pulp extract, associated or not to UVA radiation, on Escherichia coli-deficient repair mutants and plasmid DNA, in order to test its genotoxic potential. Data obtained from analysis of survival fractions, bacterial transformation and agarose gel electrophoresis suggest that Aloe vera has genotoxic properties, but it seems not to be able to damage the cell membrane.
    Journal of Ethnopharmacology 12/2005; 102(2):197-201. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Plants have been related to our lives, being used as medicine, regardless of scientific evidence of side effects. This work analyses the toxicological effects of Chrysobalanus icaco L. aqueous extract, used in different pathologies. It was studied through: (i) alteration of plasmid pUC 9.1 topology; (ii) survival of bacterial strains submitted, or not, to previous treatment with SnCl2; (iii) transformation efficiency of E. coli strain by the treatment with the plasmid pUC 9.1. In (i), the treatment of the plasmid resulted in DNA single-strand breaks (SSB). A decrease of the lethal effect induced by SnCl2 in presence of the extract was found, while no C. icaco bacterial survival reduction was observed. The transformation efficiency of the plasmid was also reduced. Results suggest that the extract could present a potential genotoxic effect, as demonstrated either by the induction of SSB in plasmid or in transformation efficiency experiments. Finally, it presents an antioxidant action.
    Toxicology Letters 09/2004; 151(3):481-7. · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.) is widely used as laxative, but data from Ames test and animal and/or human studies with this agent have shown a mutagenic and carcinogenic potentiality. Using thee experimental models (bacterial inactivation test; bacterail mutagenisis assay-Mutoxitest; and growth Inhibition test, we investigated the toxicity of senna. Our data suggest an absence of mutagenic and citotoxic potentiality of senna.
    Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia 12/2003; 14:1-2. · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stannous chloride (SnCl2) is employed as a reducing agent to obtain Technetium-99m-labelled radiophamaceuticals in nuclear medicine kits, being injected endovenously in humans. Toxic effects of these kits were not studied, thus making it important to evaluate their impact in humans. In this study, the toxic effects were evaluated from peripheral blood nuclear cells (PBNC) from patients who received radiopharmaceuticals obtained using such kits. The analyses included results performed by comet assay. DNA damage was visualized in PBNC samples collected within a time up to 2 hr, and 24 hr after radiopharmaceutical injection in the patients. Initially we observed an increase of comet signals, which subsequently were reduced to zero after 24 hr. The diminishing of comet amounts probably is associated with DNA repair of damaged cells or with the elimination by apoptosis of cells whose DNA are not repaired.
    Cellular and molecular biology 12/2002; 48(7):789-91. · 0.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It was demonstrated that tin, as stannous chloride (SnCl(2)), can facilitate the neuromuscular transmission by accelerating the transmitter release from the nerve terminals in the mouse. When this salt is injected into laboratory animals, it can produce stimulation or depression of the central nervous system. Because calcium (Ca(2+)) influx into the cytoplasm is indispensable to release the transmitter, it would be possible that SnCl(2) increases the Ca(2+) influx at the nerve terminals but not by blocking the K(+) channels. SnCl(2) is known to inhibit the immune response in rodents and to induce tumor generation in thyroid gland. There is no general agreement regarding its genotoxicity and it was discussed that the effects of this salt might depend on the physicochemical conditions and the route of its administration. SnCl(2) has been used in many sectors of human interest, such as food industry and nuclear medicine. This salt is directly administered to human beings endovenously, when it is used as a reducing agent to prepare 99mTc-radiopharmaceuticals which are also used for cerebral studies. SnCl(2) is capable to promote the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are responsible for the oxidative stress. Oxidative stress has been related with aging and other neurological diseases. So, it is relevant to evaluate other biological effects of SnCl(2). We decided to study these effects using Escherichia coli mutant strains, deficient in DNA repair genes, and supercoiled plasmid DNA. We evaluated the influence of medicinal plants, metal chelating agents, and ROS scavengers against the SnCl(2) deleterious effects. Our results show that SnCl(2) produced lesions in vitro as well as in vivo. This inactivation may be due to the production of ROS. We observed that the genotoxic effect of SnCl(2) was partly inhibited or disappeared, when the treatments were done in the presence of medicinal plants, metal chelating agents, and ROS scavengers. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the SnCl(2) biological effects may be associated with the generation of ROS. Moreover, we can speculate that ROS could be associated with the detrimental effects in the brain due to exogenous or endogenous metals.
    Brain Research Bulletin 12/2002; 59(3):213-6. · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The stannous ion, mainly the stannous chloride (SnCl(2)) salt form, is widely used as a reducing agent to label radiotracers with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc). These radiotracers can be employed as radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine procedures. In this case, there is no doubt about absorption of this complex, because it is intravenously administered in humans, although biological effects of these agents have not been fully understood. In this work we used a bacterial system to study the cytotoxic potential of stannous chloride. It is known that SnCl(2) induces lesions that could be mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). We, thus, investigated the existence of cross-adaptive response between hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and SnCl(2) and the role of the OxyR system known to promote cellular protection against oxidative damages. Here we describe the results obtained with prior treatment of different Escherichia coli strains with sub-lethal doses of H(2)O(2), followed by incubation with SnCl(2). Our data show that H(2)O(2) is capable of inducing cross-adaptive response against the lethality promoted by SnCl(2), suggesting the OxyR system participation through catalase, alkyl hydroperoxide reductase and superoxide dismutase enzymes
    Biochimie 05/2002; 84(4):291-4. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The stannous ion, mainly the stannous chloride (SnCl2) salt form, is widely used as a reducing agent to label radiotracers with technetium-99m (99mTc). These radiotracers can be employed as radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine procedures. In this case, there is no doubt about absorption of this complex, because it is intravenously administered in humans, although biological effects of these agents have not been fully understood. In this work we used a bacterial system to study the cytotoxic potential of stannous chloride. It is known that SnCl2 induces lesions that could be mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). We, thus, investigated the existence of cross-adaptive response between hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and SnCl2 and the role of the OxyR system known to promote cellular protection against oxidative damages. Here we describe the results obtained with prior treatment of different Escherichia coli strains with sub-lethal doses of H2O2, followed by incubation with SnCl2. Our data show that H2O2 is capable of inducing cross-adaptive response against the lethality promoted by SnCl2, suggesting the OxyR system participation through catalase, alkyl hydroperoxide reductase and superoxide dismutase enzymes
    Biochimie 04/2002; · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The stannous ion, mainly the stannous chloride (SnCl2) salt form, is widely used as a reducing agent to label radiotracers with technetium-99m (99mTc). These radiotracers can be employed as radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine procedures. In this case, there is no doubt about absorption of this complex, because it is intravenously administered in humans, although biological effects of these agents have not been fully understood. In this work we used a bacterial system to study the cytotoxic potential of stannous chloride. It is known that SnCl2 induces lesions that could be mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). We, thus, investigated the existence of cross-adaptive response between hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and SnCl2 and the role of the OxyR system known to promote cellular protection against oxidative damages. Here we describe the results obtained with prior treatment of different Escherichia coli strains with sub-lethal doses of H2O2, followed by incubation with SnCl2. Our data show that H2O2 is capable of inducing cross-adaptive response against the lethality promoted by SnCl2, suggesting the OxyR system participation through catalase, alkyl hydroperoxide reductase and superoxide dismutase enzymes
    Biochimie 01/2002; 84(4):291-294. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stannous ion has been used in different sectors of human interest, such as in food industry and in health sciences. Much is known about stannous chloride (SnCl(2)) toxicity, although, there is no general agreement regarding its genotoxicity. Cymbopogon citratus, Maytenus ilicifolia and Baccharis genistelloides extracts have been used in popular medicine. We evaluated the influence of these crude extracts on the survival of the Escherichia coli wild type (AB 1157) strain submitted to SnCl(2) treatment. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be generated by a Fenton like reaction induced by SnCl(2). E. coli culture was treated simultaneously with SnCl(2) and a specific extract. Our results showed a reduction of the SnCl(2) effect on the survival of the cultures in presence of the crude extracts. The extract of M. ilicifolia showed the highest level of protection action against the SnCl(2) effect in comparison with the other extracts. This protector effect could due to the redox properties of these crude extracts. The compounds in the crude extracts could (i) chelate stannous ions, protecting them against the oxidation and avoiding the generation of ROS, (ii) be a scavenger of the ROS generated by the SnCl(2) oxidation and/or (iii) have oxidant compounds that could oxidise the stannous ions, abolishing or reducing the SnCl(2) effect.
    Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 10/2001; 496(1-2):33-8. · 3.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mitomycin C (MMC) has been used as a component of many chemotherapeutic regimens and some toxic effects of this substance have been reported. As it has been reported that the toxicological effect of a drug can alter the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals and because patients on chemotherapeutic treatment can be submitted to a nuclear medicine procedure, we investigated whether MMC could affect the uptake of various technetium-99m (99mTc) radiopharmaceuticals used for renal evaluations. The purpose of this study was to suggest a model to evaluate the toxic effect of substances in specific organs. Three doses of MMC (0.45 mg) were administered to mice (N=15). One hour after the last dose, 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals, 99mTc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA), 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) or 99mTc-glucoheptonic acid (99mTc-GHA), with activity of 7.4 MBq, were also administered in the treated group and in the control group (N=15). After another 0.5 h, the animals were sacrificed. The organs were isolated, the 99mTc radiopharmaceutical uptake in the organs quantified in a well counter and the percentages of radioactivity (%ATI) calculated. The results have shown that: (i) with 99mTc-DTPA, the %ATI increased in the pancreas, ovary, uterus, stomach, kidney, spleen, thymus, heart, lung, liver, thyroid and bone; (ii) with 99mTc-DMSA, the %ATI decreased in all the organs except for the brain; and (iii) with 99mTc-GHA, the %ATI increased in the liver and decreased in the stomach, thymus, heart and thyroid. The effects of this chemotherapeutic drug on the biodistribution of these radiopharmaceuticals were statistically significant (Wilcoxon test, p<0.05) and could be explained by the metabolization and/or therapeutic action of MMC. Studies with other radiopharmaceuticals are in progress.
    Human &amp Experimental Toxicology 04/2001; 20(4):193-7. · 1.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The action of cyclophosphamide (CP) on the binding of the 99mTc‐MDP on plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) isolated from blood withdrawn from Wistar rats, using an in vitro model was evaluated. The experimental measures were studied starting with the parameter estimation of regressive trend lines, analysis of variance and residuals and a closed two compartment system were analyzed. In the presence of CP, the curves crossed each other at 48 h, but diverged without the drug. The short‐term components of the two‐compartment system converged in 1 hour. The mathematical approach to analyze the drug interactions mechanism with the studied radiopharmaceutical is in agreement with the known biological phenomena. In spite of the results, it is necessary to consider new procedures to define the behaviors of the interactions.
    Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals 01/2001; 44. · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We are trying to develop a model to assess properties of products utilized in popular medicine. Maytenus ilicifolia is used in herbal medicine. Red blood cells (RBC) labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) are employed in nuclear medicine. This labeling procedure depends on a reducing agent and stannous chloride is used. There is evidence that this labeling may be altered by drugs. We have investigated the possibility of M. ilicifolia extract being capable to alter the labeling of blood elements with 99mTc. Blood was incubated with M. ilicifolia extract. Stannous chloride solution and Tc-99m were added. Blood was centrifuged and plasma (P) and blood cells (C) were isolated. Samples of P or C were also precipitated, centrifuged and insoluble (IF) and soluble (SF) were separated. The percentages of radioactivity (%ATI) in C, IF-P and IF-C was calculated. The %ATI decreased on C from 93.6+/-2.3 to 29.0+/-2.7, on IF-P from 77.6+/-1.2 to 7.5+/-1.0 and on IF-C from 80.0+/-3.4 to 12.6+/-4.8. Once in RBC labeling procedure with 99mTc depends on the presence of stannous (+2) ions, the substances of the M. ilicifolia extract could increase the valence these ions to stannic (+4). This fact would decrease the %ATI on blood elements and indicate the presence of oxidant agents in the M. ilicifolia extract.
    Journal of Ethnopharmacology 10/2000; 72(1-2):179-84. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stannous chloride (SnCl(2)) is widely used in daily human life, for example, to conserve soft drinks, in food manufacturing and biocidal preparations. In nuclear medicine, stannous chloride is used as a reducing agent of Technetium-99m, a radionuclide used to label different cells and molecules. In spite of this, stannous chloride is able to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can damage DNA. In this work, plasmid DNA (pUC 9.1) was incubated with SnCl(2) under different conditions and the results analyzed through DNA migration in agarose gel electrophoresis. Our data reinforce the powerful damaging effect induced by stannous ion and suggest that this salt can play a direct role in inducing DNA lesions.
    Toxicology Letters 08/2000; 116(1-2):159-63. · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peumus boldus extract has been used in popular medicine in the treatment of biliar litiase, hepatic insufficiency and liver congestion. Its effects are associated to the substance boldine that is present in its extract. In the present work, we evaluated the influence of boldine both in: (i) the structural conformation of a plasmid pUC 9.1 through gel electrophoresis analysis; and in (ii) the survival of the strain of Escherichia coli AB1157 submitted to reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated by a Fenton like reaction, induced by stannous chloride. Our results show a reduction of the lethal effect induced by stannous chloride on the survival of the E. coli culture in the presence of boldine. The supercoiled form of the plasmid is not modified by stannous chloride in the presence of boldine. We suggest that the protection induced by boldine could be explained by its anti-oxidant mechanism. In this way, the boldine could be reacting with stannous ions, protecting them against the oxidation and, consequently, avoiding the generation of ROS.
    Journal of Ethnopharmacology 01/2000; · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stannous ion (Sn) has been employed in nuclear medicine and in food industry. We described that Stannous Chloride (SnCl2) inactivation effect in Escherichia coli is mediated by a Fenton-like reaction. The effect of SnCl2 was studied through: (i) the alteration of plasmid topology in neutral and acidic pH by gel electrophoresis; and (ii) the transformation efficiency of an wild type E. coli strain. Treatment of plasmid DNA pUC 9.1 with SnCl2, at pH 7.4, results in DNA single-strand breaks (SSB), in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of sodium benzoate partly inhibited the DNA damage, while EDTA completely abolishes DNA-SSB. Furthermore, the ability of the plasmid to transform E. coli was reduced. At pH 1.3, SnCl2 exerts a protective effect on plasmid against HCI depurination. Our results suggest the generation of ROS, such as *OH by a Fenton-like reaction, close to the site of the lesions due to a possible complexation of stannous ion to DNA.
    Toxicology Letters 12/1999; 110(3):129-36. · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The many desirable characteristics of technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) have stimulated the development of labelling techniques for different molecular and cellular structures. It is generally accepted that a variety of factors can alter the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals and one such factor is drug therapy. Because patients on chemotherapeutic treatment receive a radiopharmaceutical in a nuclear medicine procedure, we have studied in Balb/c mice the effect of mitomycin-C on the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical (99m)Tc-phytic acid ((99m)Tc-PHY) used in hepatic scintigraphy. Mitomycin-C is an antineoplastic agent obtained from Streptomyces caesptosus and is used on the treatment of disseminated adenocarcinoma of the stomach or pancreas. Three doses of mitomycin-C were administered via the ocular plexus into Balb/c mice. One hour after the last dose, (99m)Tc-PHY was administered and the animals were sacrificed. The organs were isolated, the radioactivity was determined in a well counter and the percentages of radioactivity in the organs were calculated. The results have shown that the percentage radioactivity has been increased in stomach, spleen, lung, thyroid and bone, decreased in pancreas and thymus and not altered in ovary, uterus, kidney, heart, liver and brain. The changes in the distribution of (99m)Tc-PHY may be the result of metabolic processes and/or therapeutic actions produced by the administration of mitomycin-C.
    Journal of Applied Toxicology 22(1):85-7. · 2.60 Impact Factor