[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Sarcoidosis is a multi-system granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. The skin is involved in 25% of cases. Studies on cutaneous sarcoidosis from our region are lacking.Objectives
This study was conducted to describe clinical and histopathologic findings in all patients diagnosed with cutaneous sarcoidosis at the American University of Beirut Medical Center between 1992 and 2010 and to compare findings with those published in the literature.Methods
Clinical charts of patients with cutaneous sarcoidosis were retrospectively reviewed. Extracutaneous lesions were classified by organ involvement. Treatment was documented. Pathology specimens were reviewed.ResultsCutaneous sarcoidosis was diagnosed in 76 Lebanese patients, 79% of whom were women. Mean age at diagnosis was 48 years. A total of 29% of patients had systemic disease that was commonly associated with lupus pernio lesions and subcutaneous sarcoidosis. The most common cutaneous lesions were sarcoidal plaques. The histopathologic features in our series did not differ from those described in the literature, except for the documented presence of a grenz zone. Interestingly, 23% of biopsy specimens contained perineural granulomas, raising the possibility of tuberculoid or borderline tuberculoid leprosy. Foreign bodies were detected in 10% of cases (all had systemic involvement), supporting the opinion that sarcoidosis and granulomatous foreign body reaction are not mutually exclusive.Conclusions
The clinical and histopathologic features of cutaneous sarcoidosis patients in the present series are generally comparable with those published in the literature, with minor differences. Clinically, the most commonly seen lesion was plaque. Microscopically, cutaneous sarcoidosis may exhibit a grenz zone and may show perineural inflammation and foreign bodies.
International journal of dermatology 09/2014; 54(1). DOI:10.1111/ijd.12248 · 1.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Essential thrombocythemia is one of the myeloproliferative neoplasms with a plethora of thrombohemorrhagic complications. Hydroxyurea has been proven to be an effective treatment for this condition. However, it is not without side effects. We herein report 3 patients with essential thrombocythemia treated with hydroxyurea who developed refractory leg ulcers, and we outline their successful management. We also review the literature to shed light on the mechanism of this toxicity. Awareness of this important treatment complication is important to avoid the pitfall of futile invasive interventions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Penicillamine is a well-known heavy metal chelator, classically used in the treatment of Wilson disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and cystinuria. From a dermatologic standpoint, penicillamine was found to be useful in the treatment of systemic sclerosis. The successful therapeutic uses of penicillamine have been hindered by its numerous adverse effects, both cutaneous and extra-cutaneous. It is a unique drug since it provokes a diversity of dermatologic manifestations that include (1) acute hypersensitivity reactions, (2) dermopathies characterized by elastic fiber abnormalities including elastosis perforans serpiginosa and pseudo-pseudoxanthoma elasticum, (3) autoimmune disorders such as pemphigus and penicillamine-induced lupus erythematosus-like syndrome, and (4) miscellaneous dermatoses that result from undefined mechanisms. These cutaneous adverse effects may correlate with the dosage and duration of penicillamine therapy as well as the disease being treated.
American Journal of Clinical Dermatology 04/2013; 14(3). DOI:10.1007/s40257-013-0022-z · 2.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) and Sweet’s syndrome (SS) are skin diseases usually presenting with recurrent ulcers and erythematous plaques, respectively. The accumulation of neutrophils in the skin, characteristic of these conditions, led to coin the term of neutrophilic dermatoses to define them. Recently, neutrophilic dermatoses have been included in the group of autoinflammatory diseases, which classically comprises genetically determined forms due to mutations of genes regulating the innate immune response. Both PG and SS are frequently associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs); however, IBD patients develop PG in 1–3 % of cases, whereas SS is rarer. Clinically, PG presents with deep erythematous-to-violaceous painful ulcers with well-defined borders; bullous, pustular, and vegetative variants can also occur. SS is characterized by the abrupt onset of fever, peripheral neutrophilia, tender erythematous skin lesions, and a diffuse neutrophilic dermal infiltrate. It is also known as acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis. Treatment of PG involves a combination of wound care, topical medications, antibiotics for secondary infections, and treatment of the underlying IBD. Topical therapies include corticosteroids and the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus. The most frequently used systemic medications are corticosteroids and cyclosporine, in monotherapy or in combination. Dapsone, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, intravenous immunoglobulins, mycophenolate mofetil, and plasmapheresis are considered second-line agents. Hyperbaric oxygen, as supportive therapy, can be added. Anti-TNF-α agents such as etanercept, infliximab, and adalimumab are used in refractory cases. SS is usually responsive to oral corticosteroids, and the above-mentioned immunosuppressants should be considered in resistant or highly relapsing cases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical triad of pyoderma gangrenosum (PG), acne and suppurative hidradenitis (PASH) has recently been described as a new disease entity within the spectrum of autoinflammatory syndromes, which are an emerging group of inflammatory diseases distinct from autoimmune, allergic and infectious disorders. PASH syndrome is similar to PAPA (pyogenic arthritis, acne and PG), but it differs in lacking the associated arthritis and on a genetic basis. PAPA syndrome is caused by mutations in a gene involved in the regulation of innate immune responses, the PSTPIP1, while no mutations have been detected to date in patients with PASH syndrome. We report a young male patient who developed coexisting disseminated PG, typical suppurative hidradenitis and acneiform eruption on the face, after he had undergone bowel bypass surgery for obesity. The cutaneous manifestations associated with bowel bypass syndrome often mimic PG or other neutrophilic dermatoses, suggesting a pathogenesis related to neutrophil-mediated inflammation for this condition. This is the first report describing PASH syndrome after bariatric surgery, and we propose to include such neutrophilic dermatoses in the list of complications occurring after bowel bypass surgery. Extensive genetic studies may help to clarify the etiopathogenesis of PASH as well as of autoinflammatory diseases in general.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare neutrophilic dermatosis of unknown etiology which usually occurs over the lower extremities; however, unusual presentations such as that involving the genital region have been described. Extracutaneous involvement of PG in the form of sterile neutrophilic infiltrates in various organs has infrequently been reported. We hereby describe a case of PG that was limited to the vulvar and perianal area in a 37-year-old female, with associated renal involvement in the form of a slight increase in the serum creatinine, microhematuria of glomerular origin and proteinuria. The patient had a rapid response of both her mucocutaneous lesions and renal dysfunction after the initiation of systemic steroids. The present case highlights the importance of evaluating all patients with PG for extracutaneous disease to avoid potentially harmful diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Two other reasons for interest are the localized presentation of disease on the genital region and the presence of vascular involvement, albeit without signs of true vasculitis, vascular changes possibly being a histological hallmark of PG involving genitalia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Livedoid vasculopathy is characterized by painful purpuric lesions on the extremities which frequently ulcerate and heal with atrophic scarring. For many years, livedoid vasculopathy has been considered to be a primary vasculitic process. However, there has been evidence considering livedoid vasculopathy as an occlusive vasculopathy due to a hypercoagulable state. We present the case of livedoid vasculopathy in a 21-year-old female who had been suffering of painful lower extremity lesions of 3 years duration. The patient was found to be lupus anticoagulant positive and homozygous for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T mutation. The patient was successfully treated with low-molecular-weight heparin.
Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis 05/2012; 34(4):541-4. DOI:10.1007/s11239-012-0743-5 · 2.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal venous thrombosis (RVT) is a rare but a well recognized entity in children and neonates. The clinical signs of neonatal RVT include hypertension, enlarged kidney(s), hematuria, renal insufficiency, proteinuria, thrombocytopenia, or all. Persisting impairment of kidney function and hypertension are serious and common complications in patients with RVT. Risk factors for the development of RVT include maternal diabetes mellitus, pathologic states associated with thrombosis (e.g., shock, dehydration, perinatal asphyxia, polycythemia), and sepsis. Inherited prothrombotic abnormalities have been described in some reports of RVT. We report the case of a male newborn with left RVT and associated homozygosity for both factor V Leiden (G1691A) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T mutations in addition to elevated serum lipoprotein (a). The patient was treated with heparin. We believe our case to be the first reported case in the English medical literature of such an association between neonatal RVT and homozygosity for both factor V Leiden and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. This case and other studies clearly demonstrate that neonatal RVT should be evaluated for thrombophilia conditions.
Blood coagulation & fibrinolysis: an international journal in haemostasis and thrombosis 07/2009; 20(6):458-60. DOI:10.1097/MBC.0b013e32832ca3d8 · 1.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor hypoxia is a common feature of many cancers. A master regulator of hypoxic response is the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). It functions as a master regulator of oxygen and undergoes conformational changes in response to varying oxygen concentrations. In this paper, we review what has been described about HIF-1: its structure, its regulation and target genes, its role in cancer, and its implication for cancer therapy.