[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tegumentary leishmaniasis and leprosy display similar spectra of disease phenotypes, which are dependent on cell-mediated immunity to specific antigens. Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis and lepromatous leprosy represent the anergic end of the spectrum, whereas mucocutaneous leishmaniasis and tuberculoid leprosy are associated with marked antigen-specific cellular immune response.
We characterized and compared the cell-mediated response to Leishmania and Mycobacterium leprae antigens in a patient with an intriguing association of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis with lepromatous leprosy, which are at opposite ends of the immunopathological spectra of these diseases. This was done by performance of skin tests and by assessment of the cell proliferation and cytokine production of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).
Strong skin-test reactions and PBMC proliferation were observed in response to Leishmania antigens but not to M. leprae antigens. The stimulation of PBMCs with Leishmania and M. leprae antigens induced comparable levels of tumor necrosis factor- alpha , interleukin-5, and interleukin-10. However, the interferon- gamma response to Leishmania antigens was remarkably high, and that to M. leprae antigens was almost nil.
We found that concomitant leprosy and tegumentary leishmaniasis can produce opposite polar forms associated, respectively, with absent or exaggerated cell-mediated immune responses to each pathogen. This suggests that independent mechanisms influence the clinical outcome of each infection. Moreover, interferon- gamma appears to play a major role in the clinical expression of these intracellular infections.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study reviews a series of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases diagnosed and treated in outpatient units in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, where the intermittent schedule of antimonial therapy was replaced by the continuous regimen. Both schedules were based on daily intramuscular injections of pentavalent antimonial. Forty-nine subjects received the intermittent regimen, consisting of three ten-day series alternated with ten-day rest intervals whereas seventy-one patients received the continuous regimen during 20 consecutive days. The study groups had similar composition regarding age, sex and clinical condition. The cure rate was significantly higher in the group receiving the intermittent schedule than in the group receiving continuous therapy (89.8% vs 63.3%). Moreover, loss to follow-up was significantly more frequent in the group receiving continuous therapy (19.7% vs 4.1% in the intermittent therapy). Under field conditions, the intermittent regimen provided higher effectiveness and adherence than the continuous schedule.
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical 10/2002; 35(5):477-81. DOI:10.1590/S0037-86822002000500009 · 0.98 Impact Factor