Richard Andrew Mason

Louis Stokes Cleveland VA Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio, United States

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Publications (8)12.75 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To determine liver span sonographically in a randomly selected population sample and identify factors that affect liver size. A total of 1,789 subjects (963 females, 826 males; mean age 41.8 ± 12.8 years) underwent sonographic examination of the liver in the midclavicular line to determine liver span. Subjects underwent physical examination and blood tests and completed a standardized interview questionnaire. The average liver span in the midclavicular line for the overall collective was 15.0 ± 1.5 cm; the average for females was 14.9 ± 1.6 cm and 15.1 ± 1.5 cm for males. Liver span exceeded 16 cm in 24.3% of subjects. Results of the multivariate analysis showed that, of the factors potentially influencing liver span, gender, age, body mass index, body height, fatty liver (p < 0.0001), waist-to-hip ratio (p = 0.015), and metabolic syndrome (p = 0.032) are significant. By contrast, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption, tobacco consumption, physical activity, and laboratory findings showed no influence. Sonographic measurement of liver span in the midclavicular line is a simple method for routine clinical use. Gender, age, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, body height, hepatic steatosis, and metabolic syndrome are factors associated with liver span. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 2014.
    Journal of Clinical Ultrasound 03/2014; · 0.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Current guidelines recommend measuring plasma lipids in fasting patients. Recent studies, however, suggest that variation in plasma lipid concentrations secondary to fasting time may be minimal. Objective of the present study was to investigate the impact of fasting time on plasma lipid concentrations (total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides). A second objective was to determine the effect of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease exerted on the above-mentioned lipid levels. Subjects participating in a population-based cross-sectional study (2,445 subjects; 51.7% females) were questioned at time of phlebotomy regarding duration of pre-phlebotomy fasting. Total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were determined and correlated with length of fasting. An upper abdominal ultrasonographic examination was performed and body-mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. Subjects were divided into three groups based on their reported fasting periods of 1-4 h, 4-8 h and > 8 h. After application of the exclusion criteria, a total of 1,195 subjects (52.4% females) were included in the study collective. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used for continuous variables and the chi-square test for categorical variables. The effects of age, BMI, WHR, alcohol consumption, fasting time and hepatic steatosis on the respective lipid variables were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. At multivariate analysis, fasting time was associated with elevated triglycerides (p = 0.0047 for 1-4 h and p = 0.0147 for 4-8 h among females; p < 0.0001 for 1-4 h and p = 0.0002 for 4-8 h among males) and reduced LDL cholesterol levels (p = 0.0003 for 1-4 h and p = 0.0327 for 4-8 h among males). Among males, hepatic steatosis represents an independent factor affecting elevated total cholesterol (p = 0.0278) and triglyceride concentrations (p = 0.0002). Total and HDL cholesterol concentrations are subject to slight variations in relation to the duration of the pre-phlebotomy fasting period. LDL cholesterol and triglycerides exhibit highly significant variability; the greatest impact is seen with the triglycerides. Fasting time represents an independent factor for reduced LDL cholesterol and elevated triglyceride concentrations. There is a close association between elevated lipids and hepatic steatosis.
    Lipids in Health and Disease 01/2014; 13(1):18. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Ultrasonographically guided punctures of the liver represent a decisive tool in the diagnosis of many diseases of the liver. Objective of the study was to determine the extent to which the complication rate for ultrasonographically guided punctures of the liver is affected by less comprehensively studied risk factors. METHODS: A total of 2,229 liver biopsies were performed in 1,961 patients (55.5% males; 44.5% females). We recorded actual complications and assessed the following risk factors: needle gauge, puncture technique, examiner experience, coagulation status, puncture target (focal lesion versus parenchyma), lesion size, patient sex and age. RESULTS: The rate of complications stood at 1.2% (n = 27), of which 0.5% (n = 12) were major and 0.7% (n = 15) minor complications. A significant increase in complications involving bleeding was observed with larger-gauge needles compared with smaller-gauge needles and for cutting biopsy punctures compared with aspiration biopsies (Menghini technique). In the bivariate analysis complications were 2.7 times more frequent in procedures performed by experienced examiners compared with those with comparatively less experience. Lower values for Quick's test and higher partial thromboplastin times were associated with a higher rate of bleeding. Neither the puncture target, lesion size or patient sex exerted any measurable influence on the puncture risk. Advanced patient age was associated with a higher rate of complications involving bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: Our study helps to establish the importance of potential and less comprehensively studied risk factors and may contribute to further reduction in complications rates in routine clinical practice.
    BMC Gastroenterology 12/2012; 12(1):173. · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of physical exercise and self-assessment of physical fitness (PF) and their relationship to health- and behaviour-specific factors in a randomly selected sample of an urban population in southern Germany. Cross-sectional study. In the southern German city of Leutkirch. 2187 subjects randomly selected from the registry of inhabitants. Of the selected group, aged 18-65 years, 52.1% were women and 47.9% men. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants were asked how many hours per week they spent on physical exercise and sports. They were also asked to rate their own performance and/or PF. Overall, 38.9% of the participants reported no physical exercise. Men reported a higher level of physical exercise than did women. Less exercise was reported by subjects with diabetes, high body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio and by those who were underweight. Alcohol consumption, smoker status and higher educational level showed a positive association with physical exercise. A negative trend with respect to moderate physical exercise was observed for those with metabolic syndrome, diabetes, hypertension and hepatic steatosis, but this was statistically significant only for subjects with diabetes. In both men and women, there was a relationship between self-assessed 'good' PF and high physical exercise. The data show that a large proportion of the study population is not physically active; specific risk groups (overweight subjects, older subjects, smokers or subjects with low educational level) are even less active. The data suggest that there is a great potential for measures promoting physical exercise in these groups.
    BMJ Open 01/2012; 2(2):e000713. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PurposeUltrasonography plays a decisive role in emergency patients. The primary aim of this study is to assess whether early emergency ultrasonography alters the length of stay. MethodsIn a prospective study, patients admitted to the emergency department were divided into two groups. The first group underwent early abdominal ultrasonography (within 24h after admission), and the second group underwent ultrasonography after more than 24h. The two groups were compared in terms of length of stay, age, admission diagnosis, and number of further imaging techniques used. A subgroup analysis was carried out for admission diagnosis. One hundred and forty-five patients were included in the study. ResultsIn terms of length of stay, no difference was seen between the first group (11.7±11.4days) and the second group (13.6±11.0days) (p=0.1196). In the subgroups “abdominal pain” (p=0.0333) and “cardiopulmonary disorders” (p=0.0207), a shorter length of stay was associated with early ultrasonography, while in the subgroup “infectious disease/fever,” the early ultrasonography group was associated with a prolonged length of stay (p=0.0211). ConclusionEarly ultrasonography in our setting of emergency patients with a variety of different admission diagnoses did not shorten the length of stay, but the subgroups of patients with “abdominal pain” and “cardiopulmonary disorders” might have benefited from early ultrasonography. KeywordsUltrasonography–Admitting department, hospital–Length of stay–Diagnostic imaging–Emergency service, hospital–Emergency medicine
    Journal of Medical Ultrasonics 10/2011; 38(4):203-208. · 0.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to compare conventional B-mode ultrasound (BMU), contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the detection of liver metastases at the primary staging and follow-up of women with histologically confirmed mammary carcinoma. Included in the study were 55 women (aged 57.5 ± 11.0 years, range 27-75 years; mean disease duration 57.5 months, range 5-168 months); of these, 17 women were examined as part of primary staging (staging group) and 38 women at follow-up (follow-up group). All patients underwent BMU (Philips HDI 5000), CEUS (Philips HDI 5000; 4.8 ml SonoVue), and MRI (Siemens Avanto 1.5 T) of the liver. In the staging group (n = 17), a mass was detected by BMU in 24% (n = 4), by CEUS in 29% (n = 5), and by MRI in 47% (n = 8); masses suspicious for malignancy were identified in 6% of patients with BMU and in 12% each by CEUS and MRI. Malignancy was not confirmed in any case by cytology or surgery. In the follow-up group (n = 38), masses were identified by MRI in 53% of patients with suspicion of malignancy in 18%. Malignancy was confirmed in 16% of cases identified at MRI, in 13% of cases identified with CEUS, and in 11% of cases identified with BMU. The Pearson coefficients of correlation were r = .29 (P = .03) for MRI vs. BMU; r = .42 (P = .002) for MRI vs. CEUS; and r = .75 (P ≤ .001) for BMU vs. CEUS. With respect to malignancy, the Pearson coefficients of correlation were r = .40 (P = .099) for BMU vs. MRI and r = .71 (P = .0009) for CEUS vs. MRI. Beginning in tumor stage III, the use of CEUS and MRI is associated with a significantly greater benefit in the detection of malignant tumors of the liver compared with conventional BMU. BMU appears to be adequate for primary staging and the follow-up of lower tumor stages.
    Clinical imaging 01/2011; 35(5):366-70. · 0.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of alcohol, tobacco and caffeine consumption and of vegetarian diet on gallstone prevalence in an urban population sample. A total of 2417 individuals underwent ultrasound examination and completed a standardized questionnaire as part of the EMIL study. Statistical analysis of the data considered the known risk factors of age, female sex, BMI, positive family history and potential confounders, such as alcohol, caffeine and tobacco consumption and vegetarian diet using multiple logistic regression with variable selection. The prevalence of gallstones in the population sample was 8% (171 out of 2147). Findings of the study confirmed the classic risk factors of age, female sex, obesity and positive family history. After the variable selection of potential risk factors in a logistic regression that was adjusted for age, female sex, BMI and positive family history, the factors like tobacco [odds ratio (OR) 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76-1.56, P=0.64] and caffeine consumption (OR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.42-1.42, P=0.40) as well as vegetarian diet (OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 0.39-3.35, P=0.81) had no effect on gallstone prevalence. A protective effect against development of gallstones was shown for alcohol consumption (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.46-0.99, P=0.04). The factors like tobacco and caffeine consumption as well as vegetarian diet exerted no measurable effect on the prevalence of gallstones. A protective effect was found for alcohol consumption.
    European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology 11/2010; 22(11):1345-51. · 1.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the prevalence, risk factors, and selection of the study population for cholecystolithiasis in an urban population in Germany, in relation to our own findings and to the results in the international literature. A total of 2 147 persons (1,111 females, age 42.8+/-12.7 years; 1,036 males, age 42.3+/-13.1 years) participating in an investigation on the prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis were studied for risk factors and prevalence of gallbladder stone disease. Risk factors were assessed by means of a standardized interview and calculation of body mass index (BMI). A diagnostic ultrasound examination of the gallbladder was performed. Data were analyzed by multiple logistic regression, using the SAS statistical software package. Gallbladder stones were detected in 171 study participants (8.0%, n=2,147). Risk factors for the development of gallbladder stone disease included age, sex, BMI, and positive family history. In a separate analysis of female study participants, pregnancy (yes/no) and number of pregnancies did not exert any influence. Findings of the present study confirm that age, female sex, BMI, and positive family history are risk factors for the development of gallbladder stone disease. Pregnancy and the number of pregnancies, however, could not be shown to be risk factors. There seem to be no differences in the respective prevalence for gallbladder stone disease in urban and rural populations.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 12/2005; 11(43):6800-6. · 2.55 Impact Factor