Publications (311)807.83 Total impact

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ABSTRACT: We present foregroundreduced CMB maps derived from the full Planck data set in both temperature and polarization. Compared to the corresponding Planck 2013 temperature sky maps, the total data volume is larger by a factor of 3.2 for frequencies between 30 and 70 GHz, and by 1.9 for frequencies between 100 and 857 GHz. In addition, systematic errors in the forms of temperaturetopolarization leakage, analoguetodigital conversion uncertainties, and very long time constant errors have been dramatically reduced, to the extent that the cosmological polarization signal may now be robustly recovered on angular scales $\ell\gtrsim40$. On the very largest scales, instrumental systematic residuals are still nonnegligible compared to the expected cosmological signal, and modes with $\ell < 20$ are accordingly suppressed in the current polarization maps by highpass filtering. As in 2013, four different CMB component separation algorithms are applied to these observations, providing a measure of stability with respect to algorithmic and modelling choices. The resulting polarization maps have rms instrumental noise ranging between 0.21 and 0.27$\,\mu\textrm{K}$ averaged over 55 arcmin pixels, and between 4.5 and 6.1$\,\mu\textrm{K}$ averaged over 3.4 arcmin pixels. The cosmological parameters derived from the analysis of temperature power spectra are in agreement at the $1\sigma$ level with the Planck 2015 likelihood. Unresolved mismatches between the noise properties of the data and simulations prevent a satisfactory description of the higherorder statistical properties of the polarization maps. Thus, the primary applications of these polarization maps are those that do not require massive simulations for accurate estimation of uncertainties, for instance estimation of crossspectra and crosscorrelations, or stacking analyses. 
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ABSTRACT: Within ten nearby (d < 450 pc) Gould Belt molecular clouds we evaluate statistically the relative orientation between the magnetic field projected on the plane of sky, inferred from the polarized thermal emission of Galactic dust observed by Planck at 353 GHz, and the gas column density structures, quantified by the gradient of the column density, $N_H$. The relative orientation is evaluated pixel by pixel and analyzed in bins of column density using the novel statistical tool Histogram of Relative Orientations. Within most clouds we find that the relative orientation changes progressively with increasing $N_H$ from preferentially parallel or no preferred orientation to preferentially perpendicular. In simulations of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in molecular clouds this trend in relative orientation is a signature of Alfv\'enic or subAlfv\'enic turbulence, implying that the magnetic field is significant for the gas dynamics at the scales probed by Planck. We compare the deduced magnetic field strength with estimates we obtain from other methods and discuss the implications of the Planck observations for the general picture of molecular cloud formation and evolution. 
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ABSTRACT: We present the implications for cosmic inflation of the Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies in both temperature and polarization based on the full Planck survey. The Planck full mission temperature data and a first release of polarization data on large angular scales measure the spectral index of curvature perturbations to be $n_\mathrm{s} = 0.968 \pm 0.006$ and tightly constrain its scale dependence to $d n_s/d \ln k =0.003 \pm 0.007$ when combined with the Planck lensing likelihood. When the high$\ell$ polarization data is included, the results are consistent and uncertainties are reduced. The upper bound on the tensortoscalar ratio is $r_{0.002} < 0.11$ (95% CL), consistent with the Bmode polarization constraint $r< 0.12$ (95% CL) obtained from a joint BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck analysis. These results imply that $V(\phi) \propto \phi^2$ and natural inflation are now disfavoured compared to models predicting a smaller tensortoscalar ratio, such as $R^2$ inflation. Three independent methods reconstructing the primordial power spectrum are investigated. The Planck data are consistent with adiabatic primordial perturbations. We investigate inflationary models producing an anisotropic modulation of the primordial curvature power spectrum as well as generalized models of inflation not governed by a scalar field with a canonical kinetic term. The 2015 results are consistent with the 2013 analysis based on the nominal mission data. 
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ABSTRACT: We present the allsky Planck catalogue of SunyaevZeldovich (SZ) sources detected from the 29 month fullmission data. The catalogue (PSZ2) is the largest SZselected sample of galaxy clusters yet produced and the deepest allsky catalogue of galaxy clusters. It contains 1653 detections, of which 1203 are confirmed clusters with identified counterparts in external datasets, and is the first SZselected cluster survey containing > 103 confirmed clusters. We present a detailed analysis of the survey selection function in terms of its completeness and statistical reliability, placing a lower limit of 83% on the purity. Using simulations, we find that the Y5R500 estimates are robust to pressureprofile variation and beam systematics, but accurate conversion to Y500 requires. the use of prior information on the cluster extent. We describe the multiwavelength search for counterparts in ancillary data, which makes use of radio, microwave, infrared, optical and Xray datasets, and which places emphasis on the robustness of the counterpart match. We discuss the physical properties of the new sample and identify a population of lowredshift Xray under luminous clusters revealed by SZ selection. These objects appear in optical and SZ surveys with consistent properties for their mass, but are almost absent from ROSAT Xray selected samples. 
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ABSTRACT: We present results based on fullmission Planck observations of temperature and polarization anisotropies of the CMB. These data are consistent with the sixparameter inflationary LCDM cosmology. From the Planck temperature and lensing data, for this cosmology we find a Hubble constant, H0= (67.8 +/ 0.9) km/s/Mpc, a matter density parameter Omega_m = 0.308 +/ 0.012 and a scalar spectral index with n_s = 0.968 +/ 0.006. (We quote 68% errors on measured parameters and 95% limits on other parameters.) Combined with Planck temperature and lensing data, Planck LFI polarization measurements lead to a reionization optical depth of tau = 0.066 +/ 0.016. Combining Planck with other astrophysical data we find N_ eff = 3.15 +/ 0.23 for the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom and the sum of neutrino masses is constrained to < 0.23 eV. Spatial curvature is found to be Omega_K < 0.005. For LCDM we find a limit on the tensortoscalar ratio of r <0.11 consistent with the Bmode constraints from an analysis of BICEP2, Keck Array, and Planck (BKP) data. Adding the BKP data leads to a tighter constraint of r < 0.09. We find no evidence for isocurvature perturbations or cosmic defects. The equation of state of dark energy is constrained to w = 1.006 +/ 0.045. Standard big bang nucleosynthesis predictions for the Planck LCDM cosmology are in excellent agreement with observations. We investigate annihilating dark matter and deviations from standard recombination, finding no evidence for new physics. The Planck results for base LCDM are in agreement with BAO data and with the JLA SNe sample. However the amplitude of the fluctuations is found to be higher than inferred from rich cluster counts and weak gravitational lensing. Apart from these tensions, the base LCDM cosmology provides an excellent description of the Planck CMB observations and many other astrophysical data sets. 
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ABSTRACT: We predict and investigate four types of imprint of a stochastic background of primordial magnetic fields (PMFs) on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies: the impact of PMFs on the CMB spectra; the effect on CMB polarization induced by Faraday rotation; magneticallyinduced nonGaussianities; and the magneticallyinduced breaking of statistical isotropy. Overall, Planck data constrain the amplitude of PMFs to less than a few nanogauss. In particular, individual limits coming from the analysis of the CMB angular power spectra, using the Planck likelihood, are $B_{1\,\mathrm{Mpc}}< 4.4$ nG (where $B_{1\,\mathrm{Mpc}}$ is the comoving field amplitude at a scale of 1 Mpc) at 95% confidence level, assuming zero helicity, and $B_{1\,\mathrm{Mpc}}< 5.6$ nG when we consider a maximally helical field. For nearly scaleinvariant PMFs we obtain $B_{1\,\mathrm{Mpc}}<2.1$ nG and $B_{1\,\mathrm{Mpc}}<0.7$ nG if the impact of PMFs on the ionization history of the Universe is included in the analysis. From the analysis of magneticallyinduced nonGaussianity we obtain three different values, corresponding to three applied methods, all below 5 nG. The constraint from the magneticallyinduced passivetensor bispectrum is $B_{1\,\mathrm{Mpc}}< 2.8$ nG. A search for preferred directions in the magneticallyinduced passive bispectrum yields $B_{1\,\mathrm{Mpc}}< 4.5$ nG, whereas the the compensatedscalar bispectrum gives $B_{1\,\mathrm{Mpc}}< 3$ nG. The analysis of the Faraday rotation of CMB polarization by PMFs uses the Planck power spectra in $EE$ and $BB$ at 70 GHz and gives $B_{1\,\mathrm{Mpc}}< 1380$ nG. In our final analysis, we consider the harmonicspace correlations produced by Alfv\'en waves, finding no significant evidence for the presence of these waves. Together, these results comprise a comprehensive set of constraints on possible PMFs with Planck data. 
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ABSTRACT: We present the most significant measurement of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing potential to date (at a level of 40 sigma), using temperature and polarization data from the Planck 2015 fullmission release. Using a polarizationonly estimator we detect lensing at a significance of 5 sigma. We crosscheck the accuracy of our measurement using the wide frequency coverage and complementarity of the temperature and polarization measurements. Public products based on this measurement include an estimate of the lensing potential over approximately 70% of the sky, an estimate of the lensing potential power spectrum in bandpowers for the multipole range 40<L<400 and an associated likelihood for cosmological parameter constraints. We find good agreement between our measurement of the lensing potential power spectrum and that found in the bestfitting LCDM model based on the Planck temperature and polarization power spectra. Using the lensing likelihood alone we obtain a percentlevel measurement of the parameter combination Sigma_8 Omega_m^{0.25} = 0.591+0.021. We combine our determination of the lensing potential with the Emode polarization also measured by Planck to generate an estimate of the lensing Bmode. We show that this lensing Bmode estimate is correlated with the Bmodes observed directly by Planck at the expected level and with a statistical significance of 10 sigma, confirming Planck's sensitivity to this known sky signal. We also correlate our lensing potential estimate with the largescale temperature anisotropies, detecting a crosscorrelation at the 3 sigma level, as expected due to dark energy in the concordance LCDM model. 
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ABSTRACT: This paper describes the mapmaking procedure applied to Planck LFI (Low Frequency Instrument) data. The mapmaking step takes as input the calibrated timelines and pointing information. The main products are sky maps of $I,Q$, and $U$ Stokes components. For the first time, we present polarization maps at LFI frequencies. The mapmaking algorithm is based on a destriping technique, enhanced with a noise prior. The Galactic region is masked to reduce errors arising from bandpass mismatch and high signal gradients. We apply hornuniform radiometer weights to reduce effects of beam shape mismatch. The algorithm is the same as used for the 2013 release, apart from small changes in parameter settings. We validate the procedure through simulations. Special emphasis is put on the control of systematics, which is particularly important for accurate polarization analysis. We also produce lowresolution versions of the maps, and corresponding noise covariance matrices. These serve as input in later analysis steps and parameter estimation. The noise covariance matrices are validated through noise Monte Carlo simulations. The residual noise in the map products is characterized through analysis of halfring maps, noise covariance matrices, and simulations. 
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ABSTRACT: Planck has mapped the microwave sky in nine frequency bands between 30 and 857 GHz in temperature and seven bands between 30 and 353 GHz in polarization. In this paper we consider the problem of diffuse astrophysical component separation, and process these maps within a Bayesian framework to derive a consistent set of fullsky astrophysical component maps. For the temperature analysis, we combine the Planck observations with the 9year WMAP sky maps and the Haslam et al. 408 MHz map to derive a joint model of CMB, synchrotron, freefree, spinning dust, CO, line emission in the 94 and 100 GHz channels, and thermal dust emission. Fullsky maps are provided with angular resolutions varying between 7.5 arcmin and 1 deg. Global parameters (monopoles, dipoles, relative calibration, and bandpass errors) are fitted jointly with the sky model, and bestfit values are tabulated. For polarization, the model includes CMB, synchrotron, and thermal dust emission. These models provide excellent fits to the observed data, with rms temperature residuals smaller than 4 uK over 93% of the sky for all Planck frequencies up to 353 GHz, and fractional errors smaller than 1% in the remaining 7% of the sky. The main limitations of the temperature model at the lower frequencies are degeneracies among the spinning dust, freefree, and synchrotron components; additional observations from external lowfrequency experiments will be essential to break these. The main limitations of the temperature model at the higher frequencies are uncertainties in the 545 and 857 GHz calibration and zeropoints. For polarization, the main outstanding issues are instrumental systematics in the 100353 GHz bands on large angular scales in the form of temperaturetopolarization leakage, uncertainties in the analogtodigital conversion, and very long time constant corrections, all of which are expected to improve in the near future. 
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ABSTRACT: We have constructed allsky ymaps of the thermal SunyaevZeldovich (tSZ) effect by applying specifically tailored component separation algorithms to the 30 to 857 GHz frequency channel maps from the Planck satellite survey. These reconstructed ymaps are delivered as part of the Planck 2015 release. The ymaps are characterised in terms of noise properties and residual foreground contamination, mainly thermal dust emission at large angular scales and CIB and extragalactic point sources at small angular scales. Specific masks are defined to minimize foreground residuals and systematics. Using these masks we compute the ymap angular power spectrum and higher order statistics. From these we conclude that the ymap is dominated by tSZ signal in the multipole range, 20600. We compare the measured tSZ power spectrum and higher order statistics to various physically motivated models and discuss the implications of our results in terms of cluster physics and cosmology. 
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ABSTRACT: We present the Planck Catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps (PGCC), an allsky catalogue of Galactic cold clump candidates detected by Planck. This catalogue is the full version of the Early Cold Core (ECC) catalogue, which was made available in 2011 with the Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) and contained 915 high S/N sources. It is based on the Planck 48 months mission data that are currently being released to the astronomical community. The PGCC catalogue is an observational catalogue consisting exclusively of Galactic cold sources. The three highest Planck bands (857, 545, 353 GHz) have been combined with IRAS data at 3 THz to perform a multifrequency detection of sources colder than their local environment. After rejection of possible extragalactic contaminants, the PGCC catalogue contains 13188 Galactic sources spread across the whole sky, i.e., from the Galactic plane to high latitudes, following the spatial distribution of the main molecular cloud complexes. The median temperature of PGCC sources lies between 13 and 14.5 K, depending on the quality of the flux density measurements, with a temperature ranging from 5.8 to 20 K after removing sources with the 1% largest temperature estimates. Using seven independent methods, reliable distance estimates have been obtained for 5574 sources, which allows us to derive their physical properties such as their mass, physical size, mean density and luminosity. The PGCC sources are located mainly in the solar neighbourhood, up to a distance of 10.5 kpc towards the Galactic centre, and range from lowmass cores to large molecular clouds. Because of this diversity and because the PGCC catalogue contains sources in very different environments, the catalogue is useful to investigate the evolution from molecular clouds to cores. Finally, the catalogue also includes 54 additional sources located in the SMC and LMC. 
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ABSTRACT: The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) has observed the full sky at six frequencies (100, 143, 217, 353, 545, and 857 GHz) in intensity and at four frequencies in linear polarization (100, 143, 217, and 353 GHz). In order to obtain sky maps, the timeordered information (TOI) containing the detector and pointing samples must be processed and the angular response must be assessed. The full mission TOI is included in the Planck 2015 release. This paper describes the HFI TOI and beam processing for the 2015 release. HFI calibration and mapmaking are described in a companion paper. The main pipeline has been modified since the last release (2013 nominal mission in intensity only), by including a correction for the nonlinearity of the warm readout and by improving the model of the bolometer time response. The beam processing is an essential tool that derives the angular response used in all the Planck science papers and we report an improvement in the effective beam window function uncertainty of more than a factor 10 relative to the 2013 release. Noise correlations introduced by pipeline filtering function are assessed using dedicated simulations. Angular crosspower spectra using datasets which are decorrelated in time are immune to the main systematic effects. 

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ABSTRACT: We study the implications of Planck data for models of dark energy (DE) and modified gravity (MG), beyond the cosmological constant scenario. We start with cases where the DE only directly affects the background evolution, considering Taylor expansions of the equation of state, principal component analysis and parameterizations related to the potential of a minimally coupled DE scalar field. When estimating the density of DE at early times, we significantly improve present constraints. We then move to general parameterizations of the DE or MG perturbations that encompass both effective field theories and the phenomenology of gravitational potentials in MG models. Lastly, we test a range of specific models, such as kessence, f(R) theories and coupled DE. In addition to the latest Planck data, for our main analyses we use baryonic acoustic oscillations, typeIa supernovae and local measurements of the Hubble constant. We further show the impact of measurements of the cosmological perturbations, such as redshiftspace distortions and weak gravitational lensing. These additional probes are important tools for testing MG models and for breaking degeneracies that are still present in the combination of Planck and background data sets. All results that include only background parameterizations are in agreement with LCDM. When testing models that also change perturbations (even when the background is fixed to LCDM), some tensions appear in a few scenarios: the maximum one found is \sim 2 sigma for Planck TT+lowP when parameterizing observables related to the gravitational potentials with a chosen time dependence; the tension increases to at most 3 sigma when external data sets are included. It however disappears when including CMB lensing. 
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ABSTRACT: This paper describes the processing applied to the Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) cleaned, timeordered information to produce photometrically calibrated maps in temperature and (for the first time) in polarization. The data from the 2.5 year full mission include almost five independent fullsky surveys. HFI observes the sky over a broad range of frequencies, from 100 to 857 GHz. To get the best accuracy on the calibration over such a large range, two different photometric calibration schemes have been used. The 545 and 857 GHz data are calibrated using models of planetary atmospheric emission. The lower frequencies (from 100 to 353 GHz) are calibrated using the timevariable cosmological microwave background dipole which we call the orbital dipole. This source of calibration only depends on the satellite velocity with respect to the solar system and permits an independent measurement of the amplitude of the CMB solar dipole (3364.5 +/ 0.8 \mu K) which is 1\sigma\ higher than the WMAP measurement with a direction that is consistent between both experiments. We describe the pipeline used to produce the maps of intensity and linear polarization from the HFI timelines, and the scheme used to set the zero level of the maps a posteriori. We also summarize the noise characteristics of the HFI maps in the 2015 Planck data release and present some null tests to assess their quality. Finally, we discuss the major systematic effects and in particular the leakage induced by flux mismatch between the detectors leading to spurious polarization signal. 

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ABSTRACT: Fullsky CMB maps from the 2015 Planck release allow us to detect departures from global isotropy on the largest scales. We present the first searches using CMB polarization for correlations induced by a nontrivial topology with a fundamental domain intersecting, or nearly intersecting, the last scattering surface (at comoving distance $\chi_{rec}$). We specialize to flat spaces with toroidal and slab topologies, finding that explicit searches for the latter are sensitive to other topologies with antipodal symmetry. These searches yield no detection of a compact topology at a scale below the diameter of the last scattering surface. The limits on the radius $R_i$ of the largest sphere inscribed in the topological domain (at loglikelihoodratio $\Delta\ln{L}>5$ relative to a simplyconnected flat Planck bestfit model) are $R_i>0.97\chi_{rec}$ for the cubic torus and $R_i>0.56\chi_{rec}$ for the slab. The limit for the cubic torus from the matchedcircles search is numerically equivalent, $R_i>0.97\chi_{rec}$ (99% CL) from polarisation data alone. We also perform a Bayesian search for a Bianchi VII$_h$ geometry. In the nonphysical setting where the Bianchi cosmology is decoupled from the standard cosmology, Planck temperature data favour the inclusion of a Bianchi component. However, the cosmological parameters generating this pattern are in strong disagreement with those found from CMB anisotropy data alone. Fitting the induced polarization pattern for this model to Planck data requires an amplitude of $0.1\pm0.04$ compared to +1 if the model were to be correct. In the physical setting where the Bianchi parameters are fit simultaneously with the standard cosmological parameters, we find no evidence for a Bianchi VII$_h$ cosmology and constrain the vorticity of such models to $(\omega/H)_0<7.6\times10^{10}$ (95% CL). [Abridged] 

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ABSTRACT: We report the results of a joint analysis of data from BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck. BICEP2 and Keck Array have observed the same approximately 400 deg$^2$ patch of sky centered on RA 0h, Dec. $57.5\deg$. The combined maps reach a depth of 57 nK deg in Stokes $Q$ and $U$ in a band centered at 150 GHz. Planck has observed the full sky in polarization at seven frequencies from 30 to 353 GHz, but much less deeply in any given region (1.2 $\mu$K deg in $Q$ and $U$ at 143 GHz). We detect 150$\times$353 crosscorrelation in $B$modes at high significance. We fit the single and crossfrequency power spectra at frequencies above 150 GHz to a lensed$\Lambda$CDM model that includes dust and a possible contribution from inflationary gravitational waves (as parameterized by the tensortoscalar ratio $r$). We probe various model variations and extensions, including adding a synchrotron component in combination with lower frequency data, and find that these make little difference to the $r$ constraint. Finally we present an alternative analysis which is similar to a mapbased cleaning of the dust contribution, and show that this gives similar constraints. The final result is expressed as a likelihood curve for $r$, and yields an upper limit $r_{0.05}<0.12$ at 95% confidence. Marginalizing over dust and $r$, lensing $B$modes are detected at $7.0\,\sigma$ significance. 
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ABSTRACT: Planck has mapped the polarized dust emission over the whole sky, making it possible to trace the Galactic magnetic field structure that pervades the interstellar medium (ISM). We combine polarization data from Planck with rotation measure (RM) observations towards a massive starforming region, the Rosette Nebula in the Monoceros molecular cloud, to study its magnetic field structure and the impact of an expanding HII region on the morphology of the field. We derive an analytical solution for the magnetic field, assumed to evolve from an initially uniform configuration following the expansion of ionized gas and the formation of a shell of sweptup ISM. From the RM data we estimate a mean value of the lineofsight component of the magnetic field of about +3 microG in the Rosette nebula, for a uniform electron density of about 11cm3. The dust shell that surrounds the Rosette HII region is clearly observed in the Planck intensity map at 353 GHz. The Planck observations constrain the planeofthesky orientation of the magnetic field in the region to be mostly aligned with the largescale field along the Galactic plane. The data are compared with the analytical model, which predicts the mean polarization properties of a spherical and uniform dust shell for a given orientation of the field. This comparison leads to an upper limit of about 45deg on the angle between the line of sight and the magnetic field in the Rosette complex, for an assumed intrinsic dust polarization fraction of 4%. This field direction can reproduce the RM values detected in the ionized region if the magnetic field strength in the Monoceros molecular cloud is in the range 912.5 microG. The present analytical model is able to reproduce the RM distribution across the ionized nebula, as well as the mean dust polarization properties of the sweptup shell, and can be directly applied to other similar objects.
Publication Stats
14k  Citations  
807.83  Total Impact Points  
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Institutions

1978–2013

University of Cambridge
 Institute of Astronomy
Cambridge, England, United Kingdom


1991–2007

University of Oxford
 Department of Physics
Oxford, ENG, United Kingdom


2000–2006

Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute
Cambridge, England, United Kingdom


2004

Queen's University
Kingston, Ontario, Canada 
University of Bristol
 School of Physics
Bristol, England, United Kingdom


1999

Cambridge Eco
Cambridge, England, United Kingdom 
Imperial Valley College
Imperial, California, United States 
University of Sussex
 Astronomy Centre
Brighton, ENG, United Kingdom


1997

The Royal Observatory, Edinburgh
Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom 
Instituto de Física de Cantabria
Santander, Cantabria, Spain


1979–1993

Durham University
 Department of Physics
Durham, ENG, United Kingdom


1992

California Institute of Technology
 Department of Astronomy
Pasadena, California, United States


1987–1992

University of Toronto
 Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics
Toronto, Ontario, Canada


1989

Queen Mary, University of London
Londinium, England, United Kingdom


1982

University of California, Berkeley
Berkeley, California, United States
