[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myostatin is a member of the TGF-beta superfamily that is essential for proper regulation of skeletal muscle growth. As do other TGF-beta superfamily members, myostatin signals into the cell via a receptor complex that consists of two distinct transmembrane proteins, known as the type I and type II receptors. Vertebrates have seven distinct type I receptors, each of which can mix and match with one of five type I receptors to mediate signals for all the TGF-beta family ligands. Accumulating evidence indicates that myostatin shares its pair of receptors with activin, and therefore, the question arises about how specificity in signaling is achieved. Our hypothesis is that a mechanism has to exist to restrict myostatin actions to the muscle cells. To investigate this possibility, we compared the effect of endogenous myostatin (myostatin overexpressed by myoblasts) and exogenous myostatin (recombinant myostatin added to the culture medium) in cultured myoblasts. As opposed to exogenous myostatin, endogenous myostatin induced the transcription of a reporter vector in cultured myoblasts. Notably, the myostatin concentrations that failed to induce a response in myoblasts were effective in MCF-7 cells (human mammary carcinoma) and in HepG2 cells (human hepatic carcinoma). Based on our observations, we propose that a mechanism exists that differentially regulates the bioavailability of endogenous and exogenous myostatin to muscle cells. This is consistent with a model in which myostatin actions are exerted in vivo in an autocrine fashion.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myostatin (MSTN), a transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta superfamily member, has been shown to negatively regulate muscle growth by inhibiting muscle precursor cell proliferation. Here, we stably transfected C(2)C(12) cells with mouse MSTN cDNA to investigate its possible role in myoblast differentiation. We found that MSTN cDNA overexpression reversibly inhibits the myogenic process by downregulating mRNA levels of the muscle regulatory factors myoD and myogenin, as well as the activity of their downstream target creatine kinase. Taking into consideration that MSTN expression during development is restricted to muscle, our results suggest that MSTN probably regulates myogenic differentiation by an autocrine mechanism.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability of both somatostatin (SS) and its stable analogues to inhibit cell growth depends on the stimulation of specific membrane receptors (SSTR1-5), which belong to the G protein-coupled receptor family. Accumulating evidence suggests that the SSTR2 plays a major role in mediating cell cycle arrest, and it is also clear that SHP-1, a cytoplasmic phosphotyrosine phosphatase (PTP), is an essential component of the SSTR2-mediated cytostatic effect. In contrast, the possibility that SSTR2 activation may also lead to increased apoptosis is still beyond debate, despite SHP-1 activation is also able to promote cell death in several cell types. In the present work we have investigated the ability of SSTR2 to induce apoptosis in HL-60 cells. We have found that HL-60 cells uniquely express the SSTR2 subtype, and that stimulation of SSTR2 with the SS analogue SMS 201-995 results in an increased cell death. In all, these findings demonstrate that activation of SSTR2 promotes apoptosis in HL-60 cells. Moreover, in contrast with the proapoptotic mechanism previously reported for SSTR3, cell death induced by activation of SSTR2 is independent from accumulation of p53.
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry 02/2002; 12(1):31-8. · 3.42 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the myogenic process in vitro, proliferating myoblasts withdraw irreversible from the cell cycle, acquire an apoptosis-resistant phenotype, and fuse into mature myotubes. The key factor regulating both myocyte cell cycle exit and viability during this transition is the the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(cip1). Here we show that the expression of myostatin, a TGF-beta superfamily member known to act as a negative regulator of muscle growth, is upregulated in the course of C2C12 cells myogenesis. We also show that transient transfection of C2C12 myobasts with an expression vector encoding mouse myostatin cDNA efficiently inhibits cell proliferation. Paradoxically, myostatin cDNA overexpression also enhances the survival of differentiating C2C12 myocytes, probably by a mechanism involving, at least in part, upregulation of p21(cip1) mRNA. Our results suggest that myostatin role in myogenesis is more complex than initially suggested and involves another level of regulation apart from inhibition of myoblast proliferation.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2001; 280(2):561-6. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although it is presently well established that locally produced growth hormone (GH) plays a major role in the regulation of survival mechanisms in hemopoietic cells, the responsible mechanisms are poorly understood, and the involvement of the GH receptor (GHR) has not even been demonstrated to date. In this work we investigated the presence of GHR in the human promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60, as well as the ability of GH treatment to stimulate both GHR and survival signaling pathways downstream GHR. Our results demonstrate that (1) both GHR mRNA and GHR immunoreactivity are present in HL-60 cells; (2) GH treatment results in an increase in the phosphorylation of the GHR-associated Jak2 and Stat3 proteins, indicating the ability of the hormone to induce receptor activation; and (3) activation of GHR increases the activity of Akt, a serine/threonine kinase that plays a prominent role in the regulation of cell survival. Taken together, these results demonstrate that GHR activation promotes survival of HL-60 cells, thus suggesting that GH plays a major role in the regulation of cell survival in the hemopoietic system, via an autocrine/paracrine mechanism.
Molecular Cell Biology Research Communications 08/2000; 4(1):26-31.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to investigate the existence, in human pituitary extracts, of growth hormone (GH) variants not encoded by the hGH-N gene. Using anion exchange-fast protein liquid chromatography followed by SDS-PAGE, we isolated several basic forms of pituitary GH. Incubation of these basic forms with endoglycosidase F/N-glycosidase F revealed that two of them (about 34 and 12 kD) were N-glycosylated. In contrast, no changes were found when samples were incubated with the O-linked glycosylation-specific O-glycosidase. Since the GH-N molecule lacks consensus sequences for N-linked glycosylation, our findings suggest that GH genes other than hGH-N are expressed in the human pituitary gland.
Hormone Research 02/2000; 53(1):40-5. · 2.48 Impact Factor