ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:: To determine differences in the clinical characteristics and antifungal susceptibility patterns among molecularly characterized ocular Fusarium sp isolates. METHODS:: Fifty-eight isolates of Fusarium sp obtained from 52 eyes of 52 patients were retrieved from the Ocular Microbiology Laboratory of the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute and grown in pure culture. These isolates were characterized based on DNA sequence analysis of the ITS1/2 and ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid regions. Antifungal susceptibilities were determined for each isolate using broth microdilution methods, and the corresponding medical records were reviewed to determine the clinical outcomes. RESULTS:: Fusarium solani isolates had significantly higher values of minimum inhibitory concentration for 90% isolates (MIC90) with voriconazole than F. non-solani organisms (16 and 4 μg/mL, respectively). Isolates of F. solani also exhibited a significantly longer time to cure (65 vs. 40.5 days), a worse follow-up best-corrected visual acuity (20/118 vs. 20/36), and an increased need for urgent surgical management (7 vs. 0 penetrating keratoplasties) when compared with those of F. non-solani. CONCLUSIONS:: This is the first report to examine the correlation between ocular genotyped Fusarium sp and clinical outcomes. It supports the overall worse prognosis of F. solani versus F. non-solani isolates, including higher voriconazole resistance by the former. The clinical implementation of molecular-based diagnostics and antifungal efficacy testing may yield important prognostic and therapeutic information that could improve the management of fungal ocular infections.
Cornea 01/2013; · 1.73 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To study the epidemiology, clinical observations, and microbiologic characteristics of fungal keratitis at tertiary eye care centers in the United States.
Retrospective multicenter case series.
Fungal keratitis cases presenting to participating tertiary eye care centers.
Charts were reviewed for all fungal keratitis cases confirmed by culture, histology, or confocal microscopy between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2007, at 11 tertiary clinical sites in the United States.
Frequency of potential predisposing factors and associations between these factors and fungal species.
A total of 733 cases of fungal keratitis were identified. Most cases were confirmed by culture from corneal scraping (n = 693) or biopsies (n = 19); 16 cases were diagnosed by microscopic examination of corneal scraping alone; and 5 cases were diagnosed by confocal microscopy alone. Some 268 of 733 cases (37%) were associated with refractive contact lens wear, 180 of 733 cases (25%) were associated with ocular trauma, and 209 of 733 cases (29%) were associated with ocular surface disease. No predisposing factor was identified in 76 cases (10%). Filamentous fungi were identified in 141 of 180 ocular trauma cases (78%) and in 231 of 268 refractive contact lens-associated cases (86%). Yeast was the causative organism in 111 of 209 cases (53%) associated with ocular surface disease. Yeast accounted for few cases of fungal keratitis associated with refractive contact-lens wear (20 cases), therapeutic contact-lens wear (11 cases), or ocular trauma (21 cases). Surgical intervention was undertaken in 26% of cases and was most frequently performed for fungal keratitis associated with ocular surface disease (44%). Surgical intervention was more likely in cases associated with filamentous fungi (P = 0.03). Among contact lens wearers, delay in diagnosis of 2 or more weeks increased the likelihood of surgery (age-adjusted odds ratio = 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-4.2).
Trauma, contact lens wear, and ocular surface disease predispose patients to developing fungal keratitis. Filamentous fungi are most frequently the causative organism for fungal keratitis associated with trauma or contact lens wear, whereas yeast is most frequently the causative organism in patients with ocular surface disease. Delay in diagnosis increases the likelihood of surgical intervention for contact lens-associated fungal keratitis.
Ophthalmology 02/2011; 118(5):920-6. · 5.45 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Fungal keratitis is a serious ocular infection that is considered to be rare among contact lens wearers. The recent Fusarium keratitis outbreak raised questions regarding the background rate of Fusarium-related keratitis and other fungal keratitis in this population.
Retrospective, multicenter case series.
Six hundred ninety-five cases of fungal keratitis cases who presented to 1 of 10 tertiary medical centers from 2001 to 2007.
Ten tertiary care centers in the United States performed a retrospective review of culture-positive fungal keratitis cases at their centers between January 2001 and December 2007. Cases were identified using microbiology, pathology, and/or confocal microscopy records. Information was collected on contact lens status, method of diagnosis, and organism(s) identified. The quarterly number of cases by contact lens status was calculated and Poisson regression was used to evaluate presence of trends. The Johns Hopkins Medicine Institutional Review Board (IRB) and the IRBs at each participating center approved the research.
Quarterly number of fungal keratitis cases and fungal species.
We identified 695 fungal keratitis cases; 283 involved the use of contact lenses. The quarterly number of Fusarium cases increased among contact lens wearers (CLWs) during the period that ReNu with MoistureLoc (Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, NY) was on the market, but returned to prior levels after withdrawal of the product from the market. The quarterly frequency of other filamentous fungi cases showed a statistically significant increase among CLWs comparing October 2004 through June 2006 with July 2006 through December 2007 with January 2001 through September 2004 (P < 0.0001).
The quarterly number of Fusarium fungal keratitis cases among CLWs returned to pre-Renu with Moistureloc levels after removal of the product from the market. However, the number of other filamentous fungal keratitis cases, although small, seems to have increased among refractive CLWs. Reasons for these apparent increases are unclear.
Ophthalmology 12/2010; 117(12):2263-7. · 5.45 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To describe a case of severe and drug-resistant Acanthamoeba keratitis in a contact lens wearer caused by atypical T5 Acanthamoeba genotype (Acanthamoeba lenticulata).
Report of a case, Acanthamoeba DNA amplification and sequencing.
A 61-year-old patient was referred to our clinic with a 2-week history of keratitis. Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) was diagnosed using confocal microscopy and corneal scraping culture. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing, the organism was classified as a T5 genotype (A. lenticulata). The keratitis continued to progress despite topical antiamoebic therapy and ultimately led to enucleation of the affected eye.
T5 genotype Acanthamoeba can cause severe AK. Atypical Acanthamoeba genotypes could be associated with worse prognosis and resistance to therapy.
Eye & contact lens 05/2010; 36(3):183-4.
Journal of Cataract [?] Refractive Surgery 11/2008; 34(10):1616-7; author reply 1617. · 2.26 Impact Factor