[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reduced antituberculosis drug concentrations may contribute to unfavorable treatment outcomes among HIV-infected patients with more advanced immune suppression, and few studies have evaluated pharmacokinetics of the first-line antituberculosis drugs in such patients given fixed-dose combination tablets according to international guidelines using weight bands. In this study, pharmacokinetics were evaluated in 60 patients on 4 occasions during the first month of antituberculosis therapy. Multilevel linear mixed-effects regression analysis was used to examine the effects of age, sex, weight, drug dose/kilogram, CD4(+) lymphocyte count, treatment schedule (5 versus 7 days/week), and concurrent antiretrovirals (efavirenz plus lamivudine plus zidovudine) on the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 h (AUC(0-12)) of the respective antituberculosis drugs and to compare AUC(0-12)s at day 8, day 15, and day 29 with the day 1 AUC(0-12). Median (range) age, weight, and CD4(+) lymphocyte count were 32 (18 to 47) years, 55.2 (34.4 to 98.7) kg, and 252 (12 to 500)/μl. For every 10-kg increase in body weight, the predicted day 29 AUC(0-12) increased by 14.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.5, 20.8), 14.1% (95% CI, -0.7, 31.1), 6.1% (95% CI, 2.7, 9.6) and 6.0% (95% CI, 0.8, 11.3) for rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol, respectively. Males had day 29 AUC(0-12)s 19.3% (95% CI, 3.6, 35.1) and 14.0% (95% CI, 5.6, 22.4) lower than females for rifampin and pyrazinamide, respectively. Level of immune suppression and concomitant antiretrovirals had little effect on the concentrations of the antituberculosis agents. As they had reduced drug concentrations, it is important to review treatment responses in patients in the lower weight bands and males to inform future treatment guidelines, and revision of doses in these patients should be considered.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 03/2012; 56(6):3232-8. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunotherapies have the potential to improve the outcome in all patients with tuberculosis (TB) including those with multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB and extensively drug-resistant (XDR)-TB. Immunotherapy for TB may shorten duration of treatment and reduce pathology in individuals cured by chemotherapy, potentially preventing recurrence. Currently none of the available candidate agents have proof of efficacy for use in MDR-TB or XDR-TB. Further development and evaluation of existing immunotherapeutic agents is required to identify an effective agent that can be used adjunctively with chemotherapy to improve treatment outcomes for drug-susceptible TB, MDR-TB, and XDR-TB. With a range of potential immunotherapeutics, some of which have been produced to good manufacturing practice (GMP) standards and are registered for other indications in humans, the immunotherapy option should no longer be ignored.
Clinics in chest medicine 12/2009; 30(4):769-82, ix. · 2.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The vicious interaction between the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and tuberculosis (TB) pandemics poses special challenges to national control programs and individual physicians. Although recommendations for the treatment of TB in HIV-infected patients do not significantly differ from those for HIV-uninfected patients, the appropriate management of HIV-associated TB is complicated by health system issues, diagnostic difficulties, adherence concerns, overlapping adverse-effect profiles and drug interactions, and the occurrence of paradoxical reactions after the initiation of effective antiretroviral therapy. In this article, recommended treatment strategies and novel approaches to the management of HIV-associated TB are reviewed, including adjuvant treatment and options for treatment simplification. A focused research agenda is proposed in the context of the limitations of the current knowledge framework.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 09/2007; 196 Suppl 1:S35-45. · 5.85 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Currently, there are limited data to guide the management of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients with active tuberculosis (TB), the leading cause of death among individuals with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in resource-limited areas. Four trials to take place in Southeast Asian, African, and South American countries will address the unresolved question of the optimal timing for initiation of HAART in patients with AIDS and TB: (1) Cambodian Early versus Late Introduction of Antiretrovirals (CAMELIA [ANRS 1295/NIH-CIPRA KH001]), (2) Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5221, (3) START, and (4) a trial sponsored by the World Health Organization/Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases. Two other clinical questions regarding patients with TB and HIV-1 coinfection are also undergoing evaluation: (1) the benefits of short-term HAART when CD4 cell counts are >350 cells/mm(3) (PART [NIH 1 R01 AI051219-01A2]) and (2) the efficacy of a once-daily HAART regimen in treatment-naive patients (BKVIR [ANRS 129]). Here, we present an overview of these ongoing or planned clinical studies, which are supported by international agencies.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 08/2007; 196 Suppl 1:S46-51. · 5.85 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over recent years, tuberculosis (TB) and disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have merged in a synergistic pandemic. The number of new cases of TB is stabilizing and declining, except in countries with a high prevalence of HIV infection. In these countries, where HIV is driving an increase in the TB burden, the capacity of the current tools and strategies to reduce the burden has been exceeded. This paper summarizes the current status of TB management and describes recent thinking and strategy adjustments required for the control of TB in settings of high HIV prevalence. We review the information on anti-TB drugs that is available in the public domain and highlight the need for continued and concerted efforts (including financial, human and infrastructural investments) for the development of new strategies and anti-TB agents.
Bulletin of the World Health Organisation 12/2005; 83(11):857-65. · 5.25 Impact Factor