[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common cause of genital discomfort in women in reproductive ages, which causes many complications. Bacterial vaginosis is usually treated by metronidazole and clindamycin. However, this protocol does not prevent its recurrence, which is a main complaint of the patients. The number of lactobacilli in the vagina of women with BV is significantly lower than that in healthy women. Hence, efforts have been made to normalize vaginal flora by oral or vaginal administration of lactobacilli. The objective of the present study was to review clinical evidences available regarding the efficacy of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of BV.
Published randomized controlled trials were searched in PubMed, Science Direct, and the Cochrane Database between 1990 and 2011. Search terms included bacterial vaginosis, urinary tract infection, lactobacillus, and probiotics.
Orally consumed probiotics are believed to ascend to the vaginal tract after they are excreted from the rectum; vaginal administration allows for direct replacement of the probiotics for unhealthy vaginal microbiota and occupation of specific adhesion sites at the epithelial surface of the urinary tract, which consequently results in maintenance of a low pH and production of antimicrobial substances like acids and hydrogen peroxide. Receiving Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1, and Lactobacillus fermentum RC-14 at a dose of at least 10 CFU/day for 2 months has been shown to present the patients with better results.
Although the results of different studies are controversial, most studies have been in favor of the probiotics in the prevention or treatment of BV, and no adverse effects have been reported. Therefore, it may be helpful to recommend daily consumption of probiotic products to improve public health among women.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toxoplasma gondii infection, an intracellular parasite, is often asymptomatic or is caused by different clinical diseases without being detected. Evaluation of IgG, IgA, and IgM in order to diagnose the pending Toxoplasmosis may confront some problems. Several researches has showned that Toxo IgG avidity can be useful in the recent active Toxoplasmosis. In current study, modification and importance of improved Toxoplasma Avidity IgG testing has been evlauated for differentiating Toxoplasma gondii infection in early stage of pregnancy.
This experimental study included 300 pregnant women with risk of Toxoplasmosis in their initial months of pregnancy. We randomly divided 300 serum samples into A group (n=60) with high avidity and B group (n=40) with borderline avidity. The samples with Toxo IgG levels were classified to four subgroups. IgG avidity was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method.
The mean absorbance of 100 samples in two groups was calculated, and then, two dilutaion curves with plotted absorbance against dilution were drawn for each serum sample. The results of this study showed that in groups with different concentrations of toxo IgG, appropriate dilution of serum is suitable for testing of Avidity. Our findings revealed the subgroups of 1, 2, 3, and 4 with serum dilutios of 1/3 , 1/6, 1/9, and 1/18 respectively, had real and good avidity.
: One of the issues affectig the results of avidity is high concenteration of Toxo IgG in serum sample. As shown in this study, the best points of dilution for well avidity in both high and borderline avidities are marked with arrows in figures 1-8. This study confirmed that improved methods of measuring Toxo Avidity IgG are very important.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the morbidity and mortality of 2 current techniques during cesarean delivery of an impacted fetal head.
In a comparative setting, 59 pregnant women with obstructed labor due to impacted fetal head were recruited. The patients were categorized into 2 groups according to method of extraction: the "push" group (n=30) and the "pull" group (n=29). Uterus relaxants were used before cesarean in all cases and the incision was higher and wider than routine. Maternal and neonatal morbidities were compared between the groups.
Maternal complications in the push and pull groups were extension of the uterine incision (15 [50.0%] vs 5 [17.2%]); T or J incision (3 [10.0%] vs 4 [13.8%]); blood transfusion (3 [10.0%] vs 1 [3.4%]); wound infection (4 [13.3%] vs 1 [3.4%]); fever (16 [53.3%] vs 3 [10.3%]); and urinary tract infection (10 [33.3%] vs 0 [0.0%]). Incidences of extension of the uterine incision, fever, and urinary tract infection were significantly higher in the push group (P=0.008).
Owing to a lower rate of abnormal incision and postpartum fever/infection with the pull method, this technique is preferable to the push method.
International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 04/2012; 118(1):1-3. DOI:10.1016/j.ijgo.2012.03.005 · 1.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reproductive health researchers are interested in finding better methods for predicting an unwanted type of delivery after induction of labor. The aim of this study was to compare the value of transvaginal ultrasonography findings and the Bishop score in predicting cesarean section after induction of labor.
Two hundred women with singleton pregnancies undergoing induction of labor at 37-42 weeks were enrolled in this prospective study. Transvaginal investigation was done for all participants prior to induction. To compare the predictive value of the methods, receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted and equality of the area under curve (AUC) was tested.
The mean age of the participants was 29.9 years, mean gestational age was 39.6 weeks, and mean gravid was 1.5. The AUC calculated for Bishop score was 0.39 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3-0.48). The AUC for cervical length measured by ultrasonography was 0.69 (95% CI 0.6-0.77). The AUC for the posterior cervical angle measured by ultrasonography was 0.38 (95% CI 0.29-0.47). Testing equality of the ROC curves for these three methods showed the ROC for cervical length to be statistically different from both Bishop score and posterior cervical angle (P < 0.001). However, the difference in ROC area compared between Bishop score and posterior cervical angle was not statistically significant.
Based on our findings and available information in the literature, it seems that cervical length measured by transvaginal ultrasonography has the potential to replace the traditional Bishop score, provided that such a facility is available when needed.
International Journal of Women's Health 08/2011; 3(1):277-80. DOI:10.2147/IJWH.S20387
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to determine whether infection with Helicobacter pylori and CagA strain is associated with Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG), a study was conducted in Al-Zahra obstetrics and gynecology hospital in Tabriz, Iran between May 2007 and February 2008. Forty-four (44) pregnant women with the diagnosis of HG and forty-four (44) normal pregnant women of matched gestational age were included in this prospective study. Serum H. pylori immunoglobulin G antibody titer and CagAantibodies were measured for both groups of women. There was no difference in seropositivity of H. pylori antibody between subjects with hyperemesis when compared with controls. The prevalence of H. pylori infection with CagA + gene was significantly higher among control group when compared with study group. HG seems not to be associated with H. pylori infection. The results of this study suggested higher levels of CagA H. pylori infection in control groups.
African journal of microbiology research 08/2011; 5(15):2100-2102. · 0.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Available evidence about the role of supplementary vitamin E in normal pregnancy is inadequate. This study assessed the potential benefit of vitamin E supplementation on some pregnancy health indices.
A 1:2 weighted simple randomization technique was used to allocate 104 eligible pregnant women to receive vitamin E and 168 women (control) not to receive the drug. Treated women received capsules containing 400 IU vitamin E from week 14 of gestation to the end of the pregnancy.
Background variables including maternal age were found to be similarly distributed between the study groups. The rate of maternal and perinatal outcomes including Apgar score and birth weight did not differ significantly between groups. Preeclampsia occurred in 1% of treated women vs 1.78% of control women.
Giving supplemental vitamin E from the second trimester of pregnancy did not appear to affect the risk of pregnancy outcomes and occurrence of preeclampsia.
International Journal of General Medicine 06/2011; 4:461-4. DOI:10.2147/IJGM.S20107
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although it is well-known that postterm pregnancies are associated with the risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality, a comprehensive study on its management is lacking. The aim of present study was to determine whether ketonuria is associated with abnormal fetal test results in pregnancies >40 weeks of gestation.
In this analytical cross sectional study, a total of 360 pregnant women with gestational age of >40 weeks were evaluated in two hospitals during 2003 - 2004. For each woman, urinary ketones, glucose, pH, proteins, and specific gravity were measured by total screen LSG tapes (Rapignost); in addition, biophysical profile test was recorded and the amniotic fluid index was assessed by ultrasonography.
Ketonuria was found in 34 women (9.44%). Statistical analyses showed that maternal ketonuria was associated with oligohydramnios, abnormal fetal tests, and a significant increase in fetal heart rate decelerations.
Patients with clinically-detectable ketonuria have higher risk for abnormal fetal tests in comparison with those without the disease.
Archives of Iranian medicine 05/2006; 9(2):144-7. · 1.11 Impact Factor