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Publications (2)4.23 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Injecting drug use and unsafe sexual practice are both considered major risk factors for HIV infection. This study reports sexual behaviors among male "current" (i.e. using heroin and/or opium at least once in the past 3 months) and "ex-" opiate users in Chiang Rai province in Northern Thailand. Between January 1999 and August 2000, 206 male opiate users were recruited by mail callback. Of the 206 drug users, 89 (43.2%) could be classified as current users. Current users did not differ from ex-users, except for educational level and ethnicity. Current and ex-opiate users showed no difference in number of regular sexual partners, proportion of having sex with commercial and non-commercial sex partners, and reported histories of sexually transmitted diseases. This study suggests that the importance of sexual risk behaviors in HIV transmission cannot be ignored in both current and ex-opiate users.
    Journal of Epidemiology 10/2002; 12(5):345-50. · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine trends and associated risk factors of HIV incidence (1989-1997) in a drug abuse treatment clinic in northern Thailand where HIV is epidemic. Retrospective cohort study. Nine-years (1989-1997) of data (excluding names) from the logbook of drug abusers seeking treatments in Mae Chan Hospital in Chiangrai Thailand, were transcribed and double-entered into separate computer files which were later validated against each other. For each patient, the dates of the first HIV negative, the last HIV negative, and the first HIV positive were determined. A retrospective cohort of drug users who were initially HIV-negative and treated for more than once was constructed. HIV seroconversion was assumed to follow a uniform distribution between the last negative and the first positive HIV tests. The incidence rates and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Of the 378 repeat patients, 16 (4.2%) HIV seroconverted. This is equivalent to 5.11 per 100 person-years of observation (PYO) (95% CI = 3.13-8.35). The incidence remained relatively stable over the study period while the prevalence was on the decline. The younger, Thai lowlanders, drug injectors had higher incidence rates than the older, ethnic minorities and drug smokers, respectively. Prevalence can give illusional results. It is necessary to know baseline HIV incidence to monitor and evaluate an HIV intervention program.
    Journal of Epidemiology 05/1999; 9(2):114-20. · 2.11 Impact Factor