[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few studies have investigated whether parents’, teachers’ and children’s responses to the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) have equivalence. In this study, data from 854 matched questionnaires collected in Malaysia were subjected to tau equivalence confirmatory factor analysis, to assess if all three groups responded to the same target (the child) similarly. We first fitted Goodman’s (Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 581–586, (1997a); Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 791–801, 1997b) five factor model, but found that this did not fit the model despite attempts to improve and rectify model fit. We thereafter attempted to fit Dickey and Blumberg (Journal of the American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 1159–1167, 2004) three factor model, but similarly found a lack of fit. We then undertook an exploratory model with a random half of the data, obtaining a three factor solution, and tested this in a confirmatory tau equivalence model. The Unconstrained Model provided a fit to the data, revealing a similar structure across the three informant groups. As this fit was for the Unconstrained Model, it reveals that groups differ in the value they place on each of the variables but overall that held a similar underlying factor structure. The findings are discussed in relation to the possible cultural issues involved and the use of the SDQ.
Quality and Quantity 03/2014; 48(2). DOI:10.1007/s11135-012-9819-8 · 0.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study used a psychosocial framework to investigate the relationships between BMI, body dissatisfaction, body change behaviors
and mental health/behavioral problems amongst a sample of 513 Malay, Indian and Chinese adolescent boys and girls in Malaysia
who completed questionnaires assessing these variables. Expected gender differences were not found in relation to body dissatisfaction
or engagement in strategies to increase weight, but boys reported greater engagement in strategies to increase muscles. Relationships
between body dissatisfaction and engagement in body change behaviors and mental health/behavioral problems varied across race
and gender. These findings suggest that the psychosocial framework is a useful way to conceptualise body dissatisfaction and
related behaviors, and that caution should be exercised in generalising findings across gender and culture.
KeywordsBody image-Body change strategies-Malaysia-Psychosocial model
Sex Roles 09/2010; 63(5):386-398. DOI:10.1007/s11199-010-9812-4 · 1.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Childhood cruelty to animals is a symptom of conduct disorder that has been linked to the perpetration of violence in later life. Research has identified several factors associated with its etiology, including social factors. However, no cross-cultural studies on this phenomenon have been reported. This study investigated childhood cruelty to animals in Japan, Australia and Malaysia. Parents of 1,358 children between the ages of 5 and 13 years completed the Children's Attitudes and Behaviours towards Animals questionnaire (CABTA) which assesses Typical and Malicious Cruelty to animals. Analyses revealed no overall differences between children from these countries on either scale. However, younger boys were more likely to be cruel than younger girls in each country, and younger children in Australia and Japan were more likely to be cruel that older children in those countries. The findings are discussed in relation to previous research, and recommendations for future studies are suggested.
Child Psychiatry and Human Development 06/2009; 40(4):527-41. DOI:10.1007/s10578-009-0142-0 · 1.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little research on body dissatisfaction and body change behaviors, and the sociocultural influences on them, has been undertaken in non-Western contexts. The current study investigated these variables and the relationships between them among a sample of 529 Malaysian high school students (103 Malays, 344 Chinese and 82 Indians), who completed a set of measures in classroom settings. Chinese girls were more dissatisfied with their bodies than Chinese boys, but no gender difference was found for Malay and Indian participants. Girls were more likely to engage in behaviors to lose weight, and boys were more likely to engage in behaviors to increase muscle. The influence of sociocultural factors on body dissatisfaction and body change behaviors was limited and varied across both sex and ethnicity. Findings are discussed in relation to Western research, and it is concluded that cultural nuances need to be considered when investigating these phenomena.
Body image 03/2009; 6(2):121-8. DOI:10.1016/j.bodyim.2008.11.003 · 2.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Western research, cruelty to animals in childhood has been associated with comorbid conduct problems and with interpersonal violence in later life. However, there is little understanding of the etiology of cruelty to animals, and what in the child's life may require attention if the chain linking animal cruelty and later violence is to be broken. The study reported in this paper investigated the association between parent-reported cruelty to animals, and parent- and self-reported psychological strengths and weaknesses in a sample of 379 elementary school children in an Eastern context, Malaysia. No gender differences were found in relation to cruelty to animals or psychological problems, as assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). However, there were different predictors of cruelty to animals for boys and girls. Regression analyses found that for boys, parent-reported hyperactivity was a unique predictor of Malicious and Total Cruelty to animals. For girls, self-reported conduct problems was a unique predictor of Typical Cruelty to animals. Parent-reported total difficulties were associated with Typical, Malicious, and Total Cruelty to animals. We suggest that routine screening of children with an instrument such as the SDQ may help to detect those children who may need to undergo further assessment and perhaps intervention to break the chain linking childhood cruelty to animals and later conduct problems.
Anthrozoos A Multidisciplinary Journal of The Interactions of People & Animals 11/2008; 21(4):363-374. DOI:10.2752/175303708X371582 · 0.70 Impact Factor