[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability of an anion exchange membrane to purify a γ-retrovirus was assessed and optimised with respect to different loading and wash buffers. Recoveries of infectious virus greater than 50% were consistently obtained, while specific titre was increased up to one thousand fold when compared to the material loaded. Specific proteins removed and retained by this optimised process were identified by mass spectrometry. It was possible to successfully bind and elute the equivalent of 1.27×10(8)Ifu/ml of ion exchange membrane. This could then be highly concentrated, with infectious virus concentrated to a maximum of 420-fold compared to the load.
Journal of Chromatography A 03/2014; · 4.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aqueous core colloidosomes encapsulating the enzyme amylase were manufactured with a shell comprising polymer latex particles of diameter 153 nm. The colloidosomes were sealed with calcium carbonate by precipitation between an inner phase of Na2CO3 and an outer phase of CaCl2. This seal allowed the retention of small molecules, such as dyes, as well as larger enzyme molecules, for several months. The encapsulated material could be released by dissolution of the CaCO3 with acid, upon a large dilution in water, or by applying a sufficient shear. The degree of release could be controlled since the greater the mass of CaCO3 precipitated onto the colloidosome shell, the greater the dilution or shear required to achieve release. The calcium carbonate seal protected encapsulated amylase from the detrimental effects of components in a liquid laundry detergent for several months so that, on triggered release, the enzyme retained its high activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Opportunities exist in preparative chromatography for alternative chromatography media that possess high binding capacity and throughput, but are also economically feasible for single use disposability and avoid column packing. An ion-exchange functionalised, microporous walled micro-capillary film (MMCF), has been developed as a module for cation-exchange separation of proteins. A MMCF module has been operated on a standard AKTA chromatography system at pressures up to 1.5 MPa and superficial flow velocities up to 54,000 cm h−1. The dynamic binding capacity of the MMCF module at 10% breakthrough was 13.8 mg lysozyme/ml adsorbent volume, which is comparable to the capacity of current commercial adsorbents. Frontal analysis studies using a mixture of lysozyme and bovine serum albumin (BSA) have shown that lysozyme can be isolated free of BSA to the limit of detection of the SDS gel assay used. 98.8% of the total sample eluted was the target protein lysozyme with only 1.2% BSA impurity. MMCF may thus be a viable chromatographic medium for preparative protein chromatography.
Journal of Membrane Science 01/2014; 466:123–129. · 4.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enteric coated oral tablets or capsules can deliver dried live cells directly into the intestine. Previously, we found that a live attenuated bacterial vaccine acquired sensitivity to intestinal bile when dried, raising the possibility that although gastric acid can be bypassed, significant loss of viability might occur on release from an enteric coated oral formulations. Here we demonstrate that some food-grade lyophilised preparations of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus salivarius also show temporary bile sensitivity that can be rapidly reversed by rehydration. To protect dried cells from temporary bile sensitivity, we propose using bile acid adsorbing resins, such as cholestyramine, which are bile acid binding agents, historically used to lower cholesterol levels. Vcaps™ HPMC capsules alone provided up to 830-fold protection from bile. The inclusion of 50% w/w cholestyramine in Vcaps™ HPMC capsules resulted in release of up to 1700-fold more live Lactobacillus casei into simulated intestinal fluid containing 1% bile, when compared to dried cells added directly to bile. We conclude that delivery of dried live probiotic organisms to the intestine may be improved by providing protection from bile by addition of bile adsorbing resins and the use of HPMC capsules.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For stem cell therapy to become a routine reality, one of the major challenges to overcome is their storage and transportation. Currently this is achieved by cryopreserving cells utilising the cryoprotectant dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO). Me2SO is toxic to cells, leads to loss of cell functionality, and can produce severe side effects in patients. Potentially, cells could be frozen using the cryoprotectant trehalose if it could be delivered into the cells at a sufficient concentration. The novel amphipathic membrane permeabilising agent PP-50 has previously been shown to enhance trehalose uptake by erythrocytes, resulting in increased cryosurvival. Here, this work was extended to the nucleated human cell line SAOS-2. Using the optimum PP-50 concentration and media osmolarity, cell viability post-thaw was 60 ± 2%. In addition, the number of metabolically active cells 24 h post-thaw, normalised to that before freezing, was found to be between 103 ± 4% and 91 ± 5%. This was found to be comparable to cells frozen using Me2SO. Although reduced (by 22 ± 2%, p = 0.09), the doubling time was found not to be statistically different to the non-frozen control. This was in contrast to cells frozen using Me2SO, where the doubling time was significantly reduced (by 41 ± 4%, p = 0.004). PP-50 mediated trehalose delivery into cells could represent an alternative cryopreservation protocol, suitable for research and therapeutic applications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to down-regulate the expression of disease-associated proteins carries significant promise for the treatment of a variety of clinical disorders. One of the main barriers to the widespread clinical use of siRNAs, however, is their entrapment and degradation within the endolysosomal pathway of target cells. Here we report the trafficking and function of PP75, a non-toxic, biodegradable, lipid membrane disruptive anionic polymer composed of phenylalanine derivatized poly(L-lysine iso-phthalamide). PP75 is readily endocytosed by cells, safely permeabilizes endolysosomes in a pH dependent manner and facilitates the transfer of co-endocytosed materials directly into the cytoplasm. The covalent attachment of siRNAs to PP75 using disulfide linkages generates conjugates that effectively traffic siRNAs to the cytoplasm of target cells both in vitro and in vivo. In a subcutaneous malignant glioma tumor model, a locally delivered PP75-stathmin siRNA conjugate decreases stathmin expression in tumor cells and, in combination with the nitrosourea chemotherapy carmustine, is highly effective at inhibiting tumor growth. PP75 may be clinically useful for the local delivery of siRNAs, in particular for the treatment of solid tumors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polymeric colloidosomes encapsulating viable lactic acid bacteria were prepared. An aqueous suspension of 153 nm poly(methyl methacrylate-co-butylacrylate) latex particles plus Lactobacillus crispatus was emulsified in a continuous phase of sunflower oil. By adding a small amount of ethanol and salt to the oil phase the latex particles at the surface of the emulsion droplets aggregate to form the colloidosome shells. The colloidosomes have been examined using optical, confocal and scanning electron microscopies. The viability of the bacteria was tested using fluorescent molecular probes. The encapsulated lactic acid bacteria were able to metabolize glucose from solution and produce acid albeit at a slower rate compared to unencapsulated microbes. This demonstrates transport limitation through the colloidosome shell and restriction of the cellular metabolism due to encapsulation. Protection of the bacteria by encapsulation in colloidosomes was also demonstrated; a significantly larger number of encapsulated bacteria maintained viability in simulated stomach conditions compared to unencapsulated microbes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new disposable adsorbent material for fast anion-exchange capture of nano-complexes without prefiltering, clarification or pre-processing of samples was developed based on plastic microcapillary films (MCFs). An MCF containing 19 parallel microcapillaries, each with a mean internal diameter of 142 ± 10 μm, was prepared using a melt extrusion process from an ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH). The MCF internal surfaces were functionalised using branched chain chemistries to attach quaternary amine groups producing an anion-exchange adsorbent. The purification of nano-complexes using this newly fabricated MCF-EVOH-Q was successfully demonstrated with the capture of lentivirus from pre-filtered culture harvest. This 5m chromatographic substrate was found to bind and elute ∼40% of bound lentivirus or 2.5 × 10(6)infectious units (ifu). The unique properties of this chromatographic substrate that allow the passage of large particulates was further demonstrated with the capture of lentiviral particles from unfiltered un-processed culture media containing cells and cell debris. Using this approach, 56% or 1 × 10(7)ifu of captured lentivirus was eluted. A device based on this new material might be used at an early stage in clinical lentiviral production to harvest lentiviral particles, directly from bioreactors.
Journal of Chromatography A 06/2012; 1251:236-9. · 4.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new drug delivery method for infants is presented which incorporates an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)-loaded insert into a nipple shield delivery system (NSDS). The API is released directly into milk during breastfeeding. This study investigates the feasibility of using the NSDS to deliver the microbicide sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), with the goal of preventing mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV during breastfeeding in low-resource settings, when there is no safer alternative for the infant but to breastfeed. SDS has been previously shown to effectively inactivate HIV in human milk. An apparatus was developed to simulate milk flow through and drug release from a NSDS. Using this apparatus milk was pulsed through a prototype device containing a non-woven fiber insert impregnated with SDS and the microbicide was rapidly released. The total SDS release from inserts ranged from 70 to 100% of the average 0.07 g load within 50 ml (the volume of a typical breastfeed). Human milk spiked with H9/HIV(IIIB) cells was also passed through the same set-up. Greater than 99% reduction of cell-associated HIV infectivity was achieved in the first 10 ml of milk. This proof of concept study demonstrates efficient drug delivery to breastfeeding infants is achievable using the NSDS.
International Journal of Pharmaceutics 05/2012; 434(1-2):224-34. · 3.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this work a novel microfluidic device was constructed in situ containing the smallest microscopic co-polymeric immobilised metal affinity (IMA) adsorbent yet documented. This device has for the first time allowed the microlitre scale chromatographic assay of histidine-tagged proteins in a biological sample. To enable this approach, rather than using a high capacity commercial packed bed column which requires large sample volumes and would be susceptible to occlusion by cell debris, a microgram capacity co-polymeric chromatographic substrate suitable for analytical applications was fabricated within a microfluidic channel. This porous co-polymeric IMA micro-chromatographic element, only 27μl in volume, was assessed for the analytical capture of two different histidine-tagged recombinant fusion proteins. The micro-chromatographic adsorber was fabricated in situ by photo-polymerising an iminodiacetic acid (IDA) functionalised polymer matrix around a template of fused 100μm diameter NH(4)Cl particles entirely within the microfluidic channel and then etching away the salt with water to form a network of interconnected voids. The surface of the micro-chromatographic adsorber was chemically functionalised with a chelating agent and loaded with Cu(2+) ions. FTIR and NMR analysis verified the presence of the chelating agent on the adsorbent surface and its Cu(2+) ion binding capacity was determined to be 2.4μmol Cu(2+) (ml of adsorbent)(-1). Micro-scale equilibrium adsorption studies using the two different histidine-tagged proteins, LacI-His(6)-GFP and α-Synuclein-His(8)-YFP, were carried out and the protein binding capacity of the adsorbent was determined to be 0.370 and 0.802mg(g of adsorbent)(-1), respectively. The dynamic binding capacity was determined at four different flow rates and found to be comparable to the equilibrium binding capacity at low flow rates. The sensing platform was also used to adsorb LacI-His(6)-GFP protein from crude cell lysate. During adsorption, laser scanning confocal microscopy identified locations within the adsorbent where protein adsorption and desorption occurred. The findings indicate that minimal channelling, selective product capture and near quantitative elution of the captured (adsorbed) product could be achieved, supporting the application of this new device as a high-throughput process analytical tool (PAT) for the in-process monitoring of histidine-tagged proteins in manufacturing.
New Biotechnology 01/2012; 29(4):494-501. · 1.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a simple device for multiplex quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays (ELISA) made from a novel melt-extruded microcapillary film (MCF) containing a parallel array of 200 μm capillaries along its length. To make ELISA devices different protein antigens or antibodies were immobilised inside individual microcapillaries within long reels of MCF extruded from fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP). Short pieces of coated film were cut and interfaced with a pipette, allowing sequential uptake of samples and detection solutions into all capillaries from a reagent well. As well as being simple to produce, these FEP MCF devices have excellent light transmittance allowing direct optical interrogation of the capillaries for simple signal quantification. Proof of concept experiments demonstrate both quantitative and multiplex assays in FEP MCF devices using a standard direct ELISA procedure and read using a flatbed scanner. This new multiplex immunoassay platform should find applications ranging from lab detection to point-of-care and field diagnostics.
Lab on a Chip 12/2011; 11(24):4267-73. · 5.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polymeric colloidosomes encapsulating viable Baker's yeast cells were prepared. To make the capsules, an aqueous suspension of 153 nm poly(methyl methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate) latex particles plus yeast cells is emulsified in a continuous phase of sunflower oil. By adding a small amount of ethanol to the oil phase, the latex particles at the surface of the emulsion droplets aggregate, forming the colloidosome shells. The microcapsules have been examined using optical, confocal, and scanning electron microscopies. The viability of the yeast cells was tested using fluorescent molecular probes. The encapsulated Baker's yeast cells were able to metabolize glucose from solution, although at a slower rate compared to nonencapsulated yeast. This demonstrates diffusion limitation through the colloidosome shell. The diffusive resistance could be increased by manufacturing colloidosomes with a double latex shell.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the most significant challenges to stabilization of blood in the dry state is mitigation of hemoglobin oxidation. Here, oxidation of free hemoglobin vacuum desiccated in phosphate-buffered saline alone reached 65%±5%. Arabinose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose, and raffinose at 100 mM were shown to reduce oxidation to 24%±2%, 23%±2%, 3%±1%, 8%±3%, and 7%±2%, respectively. For comparison, 100 mM glutathione allowed 5%±2% hemoglobin oxidation. Oxidation protection provided by glucose, sucrose, and trehalose was shown to increase with concentration between 5 and 100 mM, plateauing thereafter. Oxidation of hemoglobin dried in the presence of 100 mM trehalose was shown to increase with decreasing initial pH.
Biopreservation and Biobanking 12/2011; 9(4):411-3. · 1.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Significant interest exists in the application of trehalose, which has low permeability to the phospholipid bilayer, as a non-toxic intracellular cryopreservative for mammalian cells. Introduction of between 8 ± 3mM and 266 ± 22 mM trehalose into human erythrocytes using the membrane permeabilizing polymer PP-50 allowed investigation of the relationship between intracellular trehalose concentration, pre-freeze cell volume, and cryosurvival. Cellular cryosurvival increased approximately linearly with pre-freeze cell volume up to the normal volume of fresh cells; diminished cell survival correlated with subnormal pre-freeze cell volume in some cases even at >100mM intracellular trehalose concentration. Uptake of >200 mM trehalose in cells with near-normal cell volume facilitated enhancement of cellular cryosurvival by up to 15 ± 5%.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endosomolytic polymers can aid in the endosomal release of therapeutics to improve intracellular drug delivery. pH-responsive biomimetic pseudo-peptides were synthesised by grafting l-phenylalanine onto the pendant carboxylic acids of a polyamide, poly(l-lysine isophthalamide). PP-75 (stoichiometric l-phenylalanine grafting of 75 mol%) was determined to have the best endosomolytic property. The mean hydrodynamic size of PP-75 decreased with lower pH as the polymers adopted a more compact conformation due to protonation of acidic groups and increase in hydrophobicity. PP-75 was demonstrated to deliver model drugs effectively in three dimensional (3D) magnetic HeLa multicellular spheroids used as in vitro tumour models. These spheroids can be isolated easily and quickly by magnetic separation. Due to its relatively small size, PP-75 was able to penetrate from the exterior to the interior of these spheroids and was internalised by the cells in the spheroids. It could retain its pH-mediated membrane-lytic capability in 3D drug delivery by releasing internalised calcein from intracellular endosomes in the tumour models. Furthermore, cell viability results suggest that PP-75 showed no significant cytotoxicity towards cells in the spheroids. The pH-responsive PP-75 can potentially enhance the extracellular and intracellular delivery of therapeutics in tumours.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel disposable adsorbent material for fast cation-exchange separation of proteins was developed based on plastic microcapillary films (MCFs). A MCF containing 19 parallel microcapillaries, each with a mean internal diameter of 142 μm, was prepared using a melt extrusion process from an ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH). The MCF was surface functionalized to produce a cation-exchange adsorbent (herein referred as MCF-EVOH-SP). The dynamic binding capacity of the new MCF-EVOH-SP material was experimentally determined by frontal analysis using pure protein solutions in a standard liquid chromatography instrument for a range of superficial flow velocities, u(LS)=5.5-27.7 cm s⁻¹. The mean dynamic binding capacity for hen-egg lysozyme was found to be approximately 100 μg for a 5 m length film, giving a ligand binding density of 413 ng cm⁻². The dynamic binding capacity did not vary significantly over the range of u(LS) tested. The application of this novel material to subtractive chromatography was demonstrated for anionic BSA and cationic lysozyme at pH 7.2. The chromatographic separation of two cationic proteins, lysozyme and cytochrome-c, was also performed with a view to applying this technology to the analysis or purification of proteins. Future applications might include separation based on anion exchange and other modes of adsorption.
Journal of Chromatography A 03/2011; 1218(10):1409-15. · 4.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PP-50, a synthetic pH-responsive biopolymer, is here shown to increase the permeability of the phospholipid bilayer to trehalose, a disaccharide accumulated in desiccation tolerant organisms across all kingdoms. Uptake of 251 ± 6 mm intracellular trehalose facilitated an increase in the membrane integrity of vacuum dried cells by a factor of 9 ± 1 and reduced extent of hemoglobin oxidation in dried cells from 66 ± 1% to 23 ± 3%. To elucidate the mechanism of PP-50 mediated trehalose delivery, permeability studies were conducted using molecules ranging in size from sucrose to 10 kDa poly(ethylene glycol). It was shown that the logarithm of relative diffusant membrane permeability decreased linearly with diffusant molecular volume, suggesting transport via non-Stokesian diffusion. Consistent with this conclusion, topographic atomic force micrographs reported membrane thinning proximate to PP-50 adsorption on the erythrocyte membrane, a phenomenon associated with increased incidence of phospholipid hydrocarbon chain bending.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, high concentrations of intracellular trehalose (>200mM) were employed to enhance the cryoprotection and desiccation protection of human erythrocytes. However, significant challenges must be overcome if this advancement is to be translated into clinical practice. It is here demonstrated that 247 ± 5 mM intracellular trehalose caused the lysis of 60 ± 2% of erythrocytes upon resuspension in PBS of physiological osmolality (300 mOsm) and caused surviving cells to swell up to 140 ± 2% of isotonic cell volume. Trehalose loaded cells also exhibited 24 ± 1% incidence of phosphatidylserine translocation upon resuspension in 300 mOsm PBS, likely due to loading induced cell swelling. Un-loading of trehalose from erythrocytes using the membrane-permeabilizing biopolymer PP-50 was investigated as a technique to mitigate these damaging effects. After erythrocyte un-loading from 247 ± 5 mM to 39 ± 2 mM intracellular trehalose, cell lysis at 300 mOsm PBS was reduced from 60 ± 2% to 17 ± 3%. Un-loading also reduced cellular incidence of PS translocation in resuspended cells from 24 ± 1% to 13 ± 1%.