[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated fishing has had a major role in the overexploitation of global fish populations. In response, international regulations have been imposed and many fisheries have been 'eco-certified' by consumer organizations, but methods for independent control of catch certificates and eco-labels are urgently needed. Here we show that, by using gene-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms, individual marine fish can be assigned back to population of origin with unprecedented high levels of precision. By applying high differentiation single nucleotide polymorphism assays, in four commercial marine fish, on a pan-European scale, we find 93-100% of individuals could be correctly assigned to origin in policy-driven case studies. We show how case-targeted single nucleotide polymorphism assays can be created and forensically validated, using a centrally maintained and publicly available database. Our results demonstrate how application of gene-associated markers will likely revolutionize origin assignment and become highly valuable tools for fighting illegal fishing and mislabelling worldwide.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present work, a method for the authentication of scombroid products was developed, by means of FINS (Forensically Informative Nucleotide Sequencing) technique (Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) followed by phylogenetic analysis). The methodology developed allows the identification of most important scombroid species using the mitochondrial cytochrome b as molecular marker. Due to the different commercial value of the species belonging to this family, substitutions between species in seafood products can take place.Several methodological strategies allow the authentication of scombroid species in all kind of products, from fresh fish to canned products, the more usual format for marketing such species. This analytical system was validated and subsequently applied to 20 commercial samples labelled as tuna, bonito, mackerel and frigate tuna, obtaining three that were incorrectly labelled (15%).Therefore, this technique can be used as a routine method to avoid the mislabelling in the marketing of scombroid species and it is also suitable to assess the correct seafood traceability of these products.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study a genetic methodology based on the amplification of an 18S rRNA fragment by PCR and phylogenetic analysis of the obtained DNA sequences was developed. This technique allows the genetic identification of more than 50 bivalve species in fresh, frozen, precooked and canned products. The developed method was applied to 30 commercial samples to check their labeling, showing that 12 samples were incorrectly labeled (40%). Therefore, the proposed methodology is appropriate to study questions related to the correct labeling and traceability of commercial products and the control of imported bivalves and fisheries in order to guarantee the protection of consumers' rights and verify the transparency of the extractive and transforming industries.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 02/2009; 57(2):495-502. DOI:10.1021/jf802787d · 2.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lophius represents the most important genus of the family Lophiidae from a commercial point of view. The main marketing formats of the species included in this genus are tails and cheeks, making impossible the species identification on the basis of their morphological characters. In the present study, two methods based on the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences [forensically informative nucleotide sequencing (FINS)] were developed to differentiate the seven species contained in the genus Lophius. In both cases, the molecular marker studied was the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI). The RFLP analysis of the PCR products digested with the endonuclease Mbo I generated species-specific restriction profiles, and the phylogenetic analysis showing a neighbor-joining tree with independent nodes was strongly supported for all of the studied species. These methods were applied to 40 commercial samples, allowing us to detect the samples incorrectly labeled. The fraudulent labeling ratio was higher in processed products (68.75%) than whole fish (31.25%). The species subjected to mislabeling were L. budegassa (68.75%), L. vomerinus (18.75%), and L. piscatorius (12.5%). Therefore, both methodologies can be independently used to authenticate the species belonging to the genus Lophius, being useful to check the fulfillment of labeling regulations of seafood products and to verify the correct traceability of commercial trade and the control of fisheries.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 12/2008; 56(22):10594-9. DOI:10.1021/jf801728q · 2.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study a method for genetic identification of flatfish species was developed. The technique is based on DNA sequencing of amplified DNA by PCR and subsequent phylogenetic analysis ( FINS). A phylogenetic tree using the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) was constructed and the bootstrap values calculated. The mentioned technique allows the genetic identification of more than 50 flatfish species in fresh, frozen, and precooked products. This analytical system was validated and subsequently applied to 30 commercial samples, obtaining 13 that were incorrectly labeled (43%). Four of the mislabeled samples were whole fish (31%), and nine were fillets (69%). The species with the higher rate of incorrect labeling were Pleuronectes platessa (17%) and Solea solea (10%). Other species incorrectly labeled were Hipoglossus hipoglossus (7%), Reinharditus hippoglossoides, Limanda ferruginea, and Microstomus kitt (3% each species). Therefore, this molecular tool is appropriate to clarify questions related with the correct labeling of commercial products, the traceability of raw materials, and the control of imported flatfish, and also can be applied to questions linked to the control of fisheries.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 10/2008; 56(19):8954-61. DOI:10.1021/jf800570r · 2.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Legislation regarding the labeling of processed products is an important issue in the protection of consumer rights. This labeling is especially important in products that cannot be identified on the basis of their morphological characters, because these are removed from the animal in the transformation process. The goal of this study was the identification of mussel species using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and Forensically Informative Nucleotide Sequencing (FINS) methodologies. The molecular marker selected was 18S rDNA (nuclear small-subunit rDNA gene), which allows identification at the genus level and at the species level in some cases. The genera included in this study were Mytilus, Perna, Aulacomya, Semimytilus, Brachidontes, Choromytilus, and Perumytilus. Different markers were used for genetic identification at the species level. To identify the species included in the genus Perna and Choromytilus, a fragment of ITS 1 (Internal Transcribed Spacer 1) was amplified by multiplex PCR and digested with restrictases. The species of Mytilus were identified by length polymorphism and RFLP of the polyphenolic adhesive protein gene. This methodology was validated with products manufactured in the authors' pilot plant and applied to commercial samples. Therefore, this sequential method can be completely or partially used to determine the mussel genus or species present in any food product.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 12/2006; 54(22):8461-70. DOI:10.1021/jf061400u · 2.91 Impact Factor