Natasha H Banke

University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States

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Publications (7)43.06 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac triacylglycerol (TAG) stores buffer the intracellular availability of long chain fatty acid (LCFA) that act as nuclear receptor ligands, substrate for lipotoxic derivatives, and high energy-yield fuel. The kinetic characteristics of TAG turnover and homeostatic mechanisms linking uptake and storage dynamics in hearts have until now remained elusive. This work examines TAG pool dynamics in the intact beating heart, under normal conditions and in response to acute gene-expression induced changes in CD36. Dynamic mode 13C NMR elucidated multiple kinetic processes in 13C-palmitate incorporation into TAG: an initial, saturable exponential component and a slower linear rate. While previous work indicates the linear component to reflect TAG turnover, we hypothesized the saturable exponential to reflect transport of LCFA across the sarcolemma. Thus, we overexpressed the LCFA transporter, CD36 through cardiac-specific adenoviral infection in vivo. Within 72 hours, CD36 expression was increased 40% in intact hearts, accelerating the exponential phase relative to PBS infused hearts. In response to induced CD36 expression, TAG turnover also increased with elevations in ATGL a modest increase in DGAT1. The results demonstrate a dynamic system of reciprocal gene regulation that couples saturable LCFA uptake across the sarcolemma to TAG synthesis / lipolysis rates.
    The Journal of Lipid Research 10/2012; · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rationale: Muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (M-CPT1) is predominant in heart, but the liver isoform (L-CPT1) is elevated in hearts with low long chain fatty acid (LCFA) oxidation, such as fetal and hypertrophied hearts. Objective: This work examined the effect of acute L-CPT1 expression has on the regulation of palmitate oxidation and energy metabolism in intact functioning rat hearts for comparison to findings in hypertrophied hearts. Methods and Results: L-CPT1 was expressed in vivo in rat hearts by coronary perfusion of Adv.cmv.L-CPT1 (L-CPT1, n=15) versus PBS infusion (PBS, n=7) or empty virus (EMPTY, n=5). L-CPT1 was elevated 5-fold at 72 hours after Adv.cmv.L-CPT1 infusion (P<0.05), but M-CPT1 was unaffected. Despite similar tricarboxylic acid cycle rates, palmitate oxidation rates were reduced with L-CPT1 (1.12±0.29 micromole/min/g dw, mean±SE) vs PBS (1.6±0.34). Acetyl CoA production from palmitate was reduced with L-CPT1 (69%±0.02, P<0.05; PBS= 79%±0.01, Empty=81%±0.02), similar to what occurs in hypertrophied hearts and with no difference in malonyl CoA content. Glucose oxidation was elevated with L-CPT1 (by 60%). Surprisingly, L-CPT1 hearts contained elevated atrial natriuretic peptide, indicating induction of hypertrophic signaling. Conclusions: The results link L-CPT1 expression to reduced palmitate oxidation in a non-diseased, adult heart, recapitulating the phenotype of reduced LCFA oxidation in cardiac hypertrophy. The implications are that L-CPT1 expression induces metabolic remodeling hypertrophic signaling, and that regulatory factors beyond malonyl-CoA in the heart regulate LCFA oxidation via L-CPT1.
    Circulation Research 09/2012; · 11.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human studies indicate augmented myocardial lipid metabolism in females, and that sex and obesity interact to predict myocardial fatty acid oxidation and storage. Altered lipid dynamics precede cardiomyopathies, and many studies now address high fat diets. Conversely, caloric restriction (CR), is the most studied model for longevity and stress resistance, including protection against myocardial ischemia. However, no information exists on the effects of long-term caloric restriction (CR) on triacylglyceride (TAG) content and dynamics in the heart. This study explored the effects of CR, sex and age on TAG dynamics in mouse hearts. Male and female SVJ129 mice were fed either normal (ND) or CR diet for 3 or 10 months. In 5-month-old mice, CR similarly decreased cardiac TAG in males (ND: 25.5±4.5 nmol/mg protein; CR: 12.6±2.7, P<0.05) and females (ND: 30.1±4.4; CR: 13.7±1.2) (no significant differences in TAG content were seen between sexes). CR reduced the contribution of exogenous palmitate to oxidative metabolism in males and females, by 15% and 11% respectively, versus ND, without affecting cardiac workload. CR also induced a larger reduction in TAG turnover in male (68%) than female hearts (38%). Interestingly, in 5 month old male mice, CR reproduced the lower TAG turnover rates of middle-aged males (ND 13-month-old male=423±76 nmol/mg protein/min). Thus, long term CR reduces TAG pool dynamics. Despite reduced content, hearts of female mice subjected to CR retained a more dynamic TAG pool than males, while males respond with greater metabolic remodeling of cardiac lipid dynamics.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 12/2011; 52(3):733-40. · 5.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: myocardial lipid accumulation precedes some cardiomyopathies, but little is known of concurrent effects on ventricular mechanics. We tested the hypothesis that intramyocardial lipid accumulation during a short-term, high-fat diet (HFD) affects 2-dimensional strains in the heart. We examined the hearts of nontransgenic (NTG) mice and of transgenic mice predisposed to elevated triacylglyceride (TAG) storage linked to low-level overexpression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR-α). myocardial lipid and transmural principal strains E1 and E2 were determined in vivo with (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy/imaging before and after 2 weeks of an HFD in both PPAR-α and NTG littermate mice. Baseline lipid was elevated in PPAR-α compared with NTG mice. An HFD increased mobile lipid by 174% in NTG mice (P<0.05) and by 79% in PPAR-α mice (P<0.05). After an HFD, lipid and TAG were higher in PPAR-α versus NTG mice by 63% and 81%, respectively. However, TAG in PPAR-α mice after an HFD was similar to TAG in PPAR-α mice fed a regular diet, suggesting that the magnetic resonance spectroscopy signal from lipid is not exclusive to TAG. Only at the highest lipid contents, achieved in PPAR-α mice, were strains affected. Endocardial strain was most compromised, with a negative correlation to lipid (P<0.05). a short-term HFD elevated myocardial lipid measures as determined by magnetic resonance spectroscopy, which became dissociated from TAG content in hearts predisposed to cardiac steatosis. The increased lipid was associated with concurrent, transmural reductions in E1 and E2 strains across the left ventricular wall. Strains were attenuated at the highest levels of lipid accumulation, suggesting a threshold response. Thus, 2-dimensional strains are impaired early and without left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, owing to cardiac steatosis.
    Circulation Cardiovascular Imaging 11/2010; 3(6):710-7. · 5.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) are the preferred substrate for energy provision in hearts. However, the contribution of endogenous triacylglyceride (TAG) turnover to LCFA oxidation and the overall dependence of mitochondrial oxidation on endogenous lipid is largely unstudied. We sought to determine the role of TAG turnover in supporting LCFA oxidation and the influence of the lipid-activated nuclear receptor, proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha, on this balance. Palmitoyl turnover within TAG and palmitate oxidation rates were quantified in isolated hearts, from normal mice (nontransgenic) and mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of PPARalpha (MHC-PPARalpha). Turnover of palmitoyl units within TAG, and thus palmitoyl-coenzyme A recycling, in nontransgenic (4.5+/-2.3 micromol/min per gram dry weight) was 3.75-fold faster than palmitate oxidation (1.2+/-0.4). This high rate of palmitoyl unit turnover indicates preferential oxidation of palmitoyl units derived from TAG in normal hearts. PPARalpha overexpression augmented TAG turnover 3-fold over nontransgenic hearts, despite similar fractions of acetyl-coenzyme A synthesis from palmitate and oxygen use at the same workload. Palmitoyl turnover within TAG of MHC-PPARalpha hearts (16.2+/-2.9, P<0.05) was 12.5-fold faster than oxidation (1.3+/-0.2). Elevated TAG turnover in MHC-PPARalpha correlated with increased mRNA for enzymes involved in both TAG synthesis, Gpam (glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, mitochondrial), Dgat1 (diacylglycerol acetyltransferase 1), and Agpat3 (1-acylglycerol-3-phospate O-acyltransferase 3), and lipolysis, Pnliprp1 (pancreatic lipase related protein 1). The role of endogenous TAG in supporting beta-oxidation in the normal heart is much more dynamic than previously thought, and lipolysis provides the bulk of LCFA for oxidation. Accelerated palmitoyl turnover in TAG, attributable to chronic PPARalpha activation, results in near requisite oxidation of LCFAs from TAG.
    Circulation Research 07/2010; 107(2):233-41. · 11.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High-capacity mitochondrial ATP production is essential for normal function of the adult heart, and evidence is emerging that mitochondrial derangements occur in common myocardial diseases. Previous overexpression studies have shown that the inducible transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator (PGC)-1alpha is capable of activating postnatal cardiac myocyte mitochondrial biogenesis. Recently, we generated mice deficient in PGC-1alpha (PGC-1alpha(-/-) mice), which survive with modestly blunted postnatal cardiac growth. To determine if PGC-1alpha is essential for normal cardiac energy metabolic capacity, mitochondrial function experiments were performed on saponin-permeabilized myocardial fibers from PGC-1alpha(-/-) mice. These experiments demonstrated reduced maximal (state 3) palmitoyl-l-carnitine respiration and increased maximal (state 3) pyruvate respiration in PGC-1alpha(-/-) mice compared with PGC-1alpha(+/+) controls. ATP synthesis rates obtained during maximal (state 3) respiration in permeabilized myocardial fibers were reduced for PGC-1alpha(-/-) mice, whereas ATP produced per oxygen consumed (ATP/O), a measure of metabolic efficiency, was decreased by 58% for PGC-1alpha(-/-) fibers. Ex vivo isolated working heart experiments demonstrated that PGC-1alpha(-/-) mice exhibited lower cardiac power, reduced palmitate oxidation, and increased reliance on glucose oxidation, with the latter likely a compensatory response. (13)C NMR revealed that hearts from PGC-1alpha(-/-) mice exhibited a limited capacity to recruit triglyceride as a source for lipid oxidation during beta-adrenergic challenge. Consistent with reduced mitochondrial fatty acid oxidative enzyme gene expression, the total triglyceride content was greater in hearts of PGC-1alpha(-/-) mice relative to PGC-1alpha(+/+) following a fast. Overall, these results demonstrate that PGC-1alpha is essential for the maintenance of maximal, efficient cardiac mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, ATP synthesis, and myocardial lipid homeostasis.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 08/2008; 295(1):H185-96. · 4.01 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology - J MOL CELL CARDIOL. 01/2007; 42(6).