Nabil H Al-Humadi

West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, United States

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Publications (6)14.16 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Studies have shown that silica induces apoptosis through mechanisms that also regulate the inflammatory responses of lung cells to silica exposure. Although implicated in cell culture studies, the major in vivo pathway through which silica induces apoptosis has not been characterized. The present study is to study the role of mitochondria in silica-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in vivo. Rats were intratracheally instilled with saline or silica (20 mg/kg) and sacrificed at 3 days post-exposure unless otherwise specified. Alveolar macrophages (AM) were harvested by bronchoalveolar lavage and measured for apoptosis and secretion of inflammatory mediators in the presence or absence of appropriate inhibitors. Concurrent studies were carried out to determine the presence of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) via confocal microscopy, mitochondrial trans-membrane potential by flow cytometry, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, and the activation of caspase activities in AM by Western blot analysis. Silica was shown to induce elevated levels of intracellular ROS, resulting in a marked decrease in intracellular glutathione (GSH) and cysteine and a sustained presence of apoptotic AM in silica-exposed rats up to two weeks post-exposure. The apoptotic AM were characterized by decreased mitochondrial trans-membrane potential, increased mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, activated caspase 9 (but not caspase 8) and caspase 3 activities, and PARP degradation, comparing to cells from the saline control. Silica induced AM production of IL-1 and TNF-alpha, which may be inhibited by ex vivo treatment of cells with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or microtubule modifiers such as tetrandrine and taxol. NAC was shown to prevent intracellular GSH depletion and silica-induced production of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha but not apoptosis in AM from silica-exposed rats. These results show that silica-induced apoptosis is mediated through the mitochondrial pathway but not through cellular production of inflammatory cytokines, ROS generation, however, induces both apoptosis and cellular secretion of inflammatory mediators.
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 08/2006; 69(13):1261-84. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) exposure on innate, cellular and humoral pulmonary immunity was studied using high-dose, acute-exposure rat, mouse, and cell culture models. DEP consists of a complex mixture of petrochemical-derived organics adsorbed onto elemental carbon particles. DEP is a major component of particulate urban air pollution and a health concern in both urban and occupational environments. The alveolar macrophage is considered a key cellular component in pulmonary innate immunity. DEP and DEP organic extracts have been found to suppress alveolar macrophage function as demonstrated by reduced production of cytokines (interleukin-1 [IL-1], tumor necrosis factor- alpha [TNF- alpha]) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to a variety of agents, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interferon- gamma (IFN- gamma), and bacteria. Fractionation of DEP organic extract suggests that this activity was predominately in polyaromatic-containing and more polar (resin) fractions. Organic-stripped DEP did not alter these innate pulmonary immune responses. DEP also depressed pulmonary clearance of Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). The contribution of the organic component of DEP is less well defined with respect to acquired and humoral immunity. Indeed, both DEP and carbon black enhanced humoral immune responses (specific immunoglobulin [Ig] E and IgG) in an ovalbumin-sensitized rat model. It is concluded that both the particulate and adsorbed organics may contribute to DEP-mediated immune alterations.
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 03/2004; 67(3):221-31. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dose-dependent specific antibody production, antigen-dependent pulmonary inflammation, and thiol changes in the lung and associated lymph nodes were examined in a Brown Norway rat model of pulmonary sensitization. Cysteine (CYSH), glutathione (GSH), and markers of inflammation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured following ovalbumin (OVA) inhalation challenge. Alveolar macrophages (AM) and pulmonary-associated lymph node cells (LNC) were isolated and intracellular CYSH and GSH assessed. OVA-specific IgE and IgG antibodies were quantified from sera. A dose-dependent biphasic response was noted with respect to OVA-specific IgE. OVA-specific IgG concentrations were maximal at 68 mg (OVA)/m3. OVA challenge to sensitized rats induced increases in BALF albumin, total protein, lactate dehydrogenase, CYSH and GSH that were independent of serum antibody concentrations. AM thiols were modestly elevated at low OVA challenge doses, but sharply reduced at the higher OVA challenge doses. In contrast, both thiols were dose dependently elevated in BALE CYSH, but not GSH, was elevated in LNC of OVA challenged rats. In summary, antigen exposure caused a dose-dependent alteration of inflammatory, thiol and immune parameters in OVA sensitized and challenged rats. Changes in thiol levels did not correlate with antibody responses. While the results of the present study do not support a functional role for thiols in the immune response, it is important to note the dose-dependent dramatic alteration seen in thiols following sensitization and challenge.
    Toxicology and Industrial Health 09/2002; 18(7):343-52. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to characterize the effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on thiol regulation in alveolar macrophages (AM) and lymphocytes. We obtained AM and lymph node (thymic and tracheal) cells (LNC) (at different time points) from rats exposed intratracheally to DEP (5 mg/kg) or saline, and measured inflammatory markers, thiol levels, and glutathione reductase (GSH-R) activity. DEP exposure produced significant increases in neutrophils, lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, and albumin content in the lavage fluid. AM from DEP-exposed rats showed a time-dependent increase in intracellular cysteine (CYSH) and GSH. In LNC the intracellular GSH reached peak level by 24 hr, declining toward control levels by 72 hr after exposure. LNC-CYSH and AM-CYSH and GSH were increased at both 24 and 72 hr. Both Sprague-Dawley and Brown Norway rats showed similar trends of responses to DEP exposure as per measurement of the inflammatory markers and thiol changes. AM and, to a lesser degree, LNC were both active in cystine uptake. The DEP exposure stimulated GSH-R activity and increased the conversion of cystine to CYSH in both cell types. The intracellular level of GSH in DEP-exposed AM was moderately increased compared with the saline control, and was further augmented when cells were incubated with cystine. In contrast, the intracellular level of GSH in DEP-exposed LNC was significantly reduced despite the increased CYSH level and GSH-R activity when these cells were cultured for 16 hr. DEP absorbed 23-31% of CYSH, cystine, and GSH, and only 8% of glutathione disulfide when incubated in cell free media. These results indicate that DEP exposure caused lung inflammation and affected thiol levels in both AM and LNC.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 05/2002; 110(4):349-53. · 7.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Brown Norway rats were exposed by intratracheal instillation of saline, carbon black (CB), or diesel exhaust particles (DEP) (5 mg/kg) on day 1, followed by exposure to ovalbumin (OVA, 90 mg/m(3)) or saline for 30 minutes on days 1, 8, 15, and 29. Animals were sacrificed on day 30. The DEP, CB, or OVA exposure alone did not result in abnormal levels of inflammatory cells, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), or total protein in the lavage fluid. In combined OVA-DEP or OVA-CB exposure, however, these markers were significantly increased. The adjuvant effect of CB and DEP on OVA sensitization was evidenced by the marked increases in serum OVA-specific IgG (5.6-fold) and IgE (3.5-4 fold) levels, and the increase in interleukin-4 (IL-4) mRNA levels in lung tissue. The OVA exposure markedly reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in both cell types. In combined DEP-OVA exposure, the level of GSH in lymphocytes was further decreased, indicating a possible interactive effect between DEP and OVA exposures. These results show that both DEP and CB augmented OVA-induced allergic sensitization, and that particle composition of DEP may not be a critical factor for the adjuvant effect. OVA exposure causes significant depletion of intracellular GSH in lymphocytes, which may play a key role in OVA-mediated immune responses.
    Experimental Lung Research 01/2002; 28(5):333-49. · 1.75 Impact Factor
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