ABSTRACT: DNA damage may be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its complications mainly through oxidative stress. Little is known about DNA repair disturbances potentially contributing to the overall extent of DNA damage in T2DM, which, in turn, may be linked with genomic instability resulting in cancer. To assess whether DNA repair may be perturbed in 2DM we determined: (1) the level of endogenous basal DNA damage, this means damage recognized in the alkaline comet assay (DNA strand breaks and alkali labile sites) as well as endogenous oxidative and alkylative DNA damage (2) the sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents hydrogen peroxide and doxorubicin and the efficacy of removing of DNA damage induced by these agents in peripheral blood lymphocytes of T2DM patients and healthy individuals. The level of DNA damage and the kinetics of DNA repair was evaluated by the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). Oxidative and alkylative DNA damage were assayed with the use of DNA repair enzymes endonuclease III (Endo III) and formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg), recognizing oxidized DNA bases and 3-methyladenine-DNA glycosylase II (AlkA) recognizing alkylated bases. The levels of basal endogenous and oxidative DNA damage in diabetes patients were higher than in control subjects. There was no difference between the level of alkylative DNA in the patients and the controls. Diabetes patients displayed higher susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide and doxorubicin and decreased efficacy of repairing DNA damage induced by these agents than healthy controls. Our results suggest that type 2 diabetes mellitus may be associated not only with the elevated level of oxidative DNA damage but also with the increased susceptibility to mutagens and the decreased efficacy of DNA repair. These features may contribute to a link between diabetes and cancer and metrics of DNA damage and repair, measured by the comet assay, may be markers of risk of cancer in diabetes.
Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 11/2004; 554(1-2):297-304. · 2.85 Impact Factor