Publications (3)5.53 Total impact
Article: Translocations in Spleen Cells from Adult Mice Irradiated as Fetuses are Infrequent, but Often Clonal in Nature.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We previously reported that mouse fetuses or neonates exposed to 2 Gy of X rays showed an unexpectedly low incidence of chromosome damage in lymphocytes, bone marrow, and spleen cells when the mice were subsequently examined at 20 weeks of age. However, cells bearing translocations were occasionally observed that, on the basis of 2-color whole chromosome painting appeared to be clonal descendants. Unfortunately, this approach typically did not permit unequivocal confirmation of their clonality. To overcome this problem, multi-color FISH (mFISH) was employed, which assigns all 21 individual chromosome types of the mouse a unique color. After mFISH analyses of the same cell samples studied previously, it was confirmed that spleen cells of 20-week-old mice irradiated either as 15.5-day fetuses or as 3- to 4-day-old neonates showed translocation frequencies close to zero. Translocations previously suspected as being clonal in nature were confirmed as such by mFISH, which also revealed the presence of an additional clone not previously detected or suspected. Since no evidence of clonality was observed in the irradiated mother, we concluded that in both fetuses and neonates, there exists a small fraction of stem cells that are distinct from the bulk of the stem cell compartment in terms of their ability to acquire and transmit radiation-induced chromosome damage through clonal expansion.Radiation Research 11/2012; · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chromosome translocations in peripheral blood lymphocytes of normal, healthy humans increase with age, but the effects of gender, race, and cigarette smoking on background translocation yields have not been examined systematically. Further, the shape of the relationship between age and translocation frequency (TF) has not been definitively determined. We collected existing data from 16 laboratories in North America, Europe, and Asia on TFs measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes by fluorescence in situ hybridization whole chromosome painting among 1933 individuals. In Poisson regression models, age, ranging from newborns (cord blood) to 85 years, was strongly associated with TF and this relationship showed significant upward curvature at older ages versus a linear relationship (p<0.001). Ever smokers had significantly higher TFs than non-smokers (rate ratio (RR)=1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-1.30) and smoking modified the effect of age on TFs with a steeper age-related increase among ever smokers compared to non-smokers (p<0.001). TFs did not differ by gender. Interpreting an independent effect of race was difficult owing to laboratory variation. Our study is three times larger than any pooled effort to date, confirming a suspected curvilinear relationship of TF with age. The significant effect of cigarette smoking has not been observed with previous pooled studies of TF in humans. Our data provide stable estimates of background TF by age, gender, race, and smoking status and suggest an acceleration of chromosome damage above age 60 and among those with a history of smoking cigarettes.Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 04/2008; 652(2):112-21. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cytogenetic data on cultured lymphocytes of the in utero exposed A-bomb survivors in the RERF Adult Health Study cohort have been analyzed using the G-banding technique to determine the frequency of aneuploid cells. The data consist of blood samples collected between 1985 and 1987 from 264 Hiroshima individuals for whom DS86 maternal uterine dose estimates are available: 124 proximally exposed (74 males and 50 females) with an estimated dose of 0.005 Sv or more, and 140 distally exposed (76 males and 64 females) with a dose estimate of 0 Sv, assuming the neutron relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 10.A main feature of aneuploidy was the aneuploid frequency in autosomes depended generally on chromosome length; aneuploidies were significantly more frequent in shorter chromosomes than in longer chromosomes. The frequency of aneuploidies also depended on type, with chromosome loss approximately five times more frequent than chromosome gain. However, chromosome 21, as well as the sex chromosomes, were notable in that aneuploidy was much more frequent for these chromosomes than would be predicted from a simple relationship with length. X chromosome aneuploidies were significantly more frequent in females than in males. There was no dependence of aneuploid frequencies on dose when measured 40 years after the exposure.Mutation Research/DNAging.