[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the effect of the loss of the Ser-Thr protein phosphatase Sit4, an important post-translational regulator, on the steady-state levels of the low-affinity glucose transporter Hxt1p and observed a delay in its appearance after high glucose induction, slow growth, and diminished glucose consumption. By analyzing the known essential pathway necessary to induce Hxt1p, we observed a partial inhibition of casein kinase I activity. In both WT and sit4Δ strains, the transcript was induced with no significant difference at 15 min of glucose induction; however, after 45 min, a clear difference in the level of expression was observed being 45% higher in WT than in sit4Δ strain. As at early time of induction, the HXT1 transcript was present but not the protein in the sit4Δ strain we analyzed association of HXT1 with ribosomes, which revealed a significant difference in the association profile; in the mutant strain, the HXT1 transcript associated with a larger set of ribosomal fractions than it did in the WT strain, suggesting also a partial defect in protein synthesis. Overexpression of the translation initiation factor TIF2/eIF4A led to an increase in Hxt1p abundance in the WT strain only. It was concluded that Sit4p ensures that HXT1 transcript is efficiently transcribed and translated thus increasing protein levels of Hxt1p when high glucose levels are present.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multidrug resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is frequently associated with gain-of-function mutations in zinc finger-containing transcription factors Pdr1p and Pdr3p. These regulatory proteins activate the expression of several ATP-binding cassette transporter genes, leading to elevated drug resistance. Here, we report that loss of the type 2A-related serine/threonine protein phosphatase Sit4p renders yeast cells sensitive to cycloheximide, azoles, daunorubicin and rhodamine 6G. This effect is a consequence of the decreased transcriptional levels of mainly PDR3 and its target genes, PDR5, SNQ2 and YOR1, which encode multidrug efflux pumps. The multidrug sensitivity of sit4 mutant cells is suppressed by the PDR1-3 mutant allele, which encodes a hyperactive form of Pdr1p. Sit4p is known to associate with regulatory proteins Sap155p, Sap4p, Sap185p and Sap190p. We found that the sap155 mutant strain is sensitive to azoles, but not to cycloheximide, while the sap155sap4 and sap185sap190 mutant strains are sensitive to both drugs. This finding indicates that the Sit4p-Sap protein complex subtly modulates the expression of drug efflux pumps. Drug resistance conferred by the expression of the Candida albicans CDR1 gene, an ortholog of PDR5 in S. cerevisiae, is also positively modulated by Sit4p. These data uncover a new regulatory pathway that connects multidrug resistance to Sit4p function.
FEMS Yeast Research 09/2010; 10(6):674-86. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, lithium induces a 'galactosemia-like' phenotype as a consequence of inhibition of phosphoglucomutase, a key enzyme in galactose metabolism. Induced galactose toxicity is prevented by deletion of GAL4, which inhibits the transcriptional activation of genes involved in galactose metabolism and by deletion of the galactokinase (GAL1), indicating that galactose-1-phosphate, a phosphorylated intermediate of the Leloir pathway, is the toxic compound. As an alternative to inhibiting entry and metabolism of galactose, we investigated whether deviation of galactose metabolism from the Leloir pathway would also overcome the galactosemic effect of lithium. We show that cells overexpressing the aldose reductase GRE3, which converts galactose to galactitol, are more tolerant to lithium than wild-type cells when grown in galactose medium and they accumulate more galactitol and less galactose-1-phosphate. Overexpression of GRE3 also suppressed the galactose growth defect of the 'galactosemic'gal7- and gal10-deleted strains, which lack galactose-1-P-uridyltransferase or UDP-galactose-4-epimerase activities, respectively. Furthermore, the effect of GRE3 was independent of the inositol monophosphatases INM1 and INM2. We propose that lithium induces a galactosemic state in yeast and that inhibition of the Leloir pathway before the phosphorylation step or stimulation of galactitol production suppresses lithium-induced galactose toxicity.
FEMS Yeast Research 10/2008; 8(8):1245-53. · 2.46 Impact Factor