Michael Frankel

Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States

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Publications (85)708.28 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose: Acute ischemic stroke patients with large volumes of severe hypoperfusion (Tmax>10 s>100 mL) on magnetic resonance imaging have a higher likelihood of intracranial hemorrhage and poor outcomes after reperfusion. We aim to evaluate the impact of the extent of Tmax>10 s CTP lesions in patients undergoing successful treatment. Methods: Retrospective database review of endovascular acute ischemic stroke treatment between September 2010 and March 2015 for patients with anterior circulation occlusions with baseline RAPID CTP and full reperfusion (mTICI 3). The primary outcome was the impact of the Tmax>10 s lesion spectrum on infarct growth. Secondary safety and efficacy outcomes included parenchymal hematomas and good clinical outcomes (90-day modified Rankin Scale score, 0-2). Results: Of 684 treated patients, 113 patients fit the inclusion criteria. Tmax>10 s>100 mL patients (n=37) had significantly higher baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (20.7±3.8 versus 17.0±5.9; P<0.01), more internal carotid artery terminus occlusions (29% versus 9%; P=0.02), and larger baseline (38.6±29.6 versus 11.7±15.8 mL; P<0.01) and final (60.7±60.0 versus 29.4±33.9 mL; P<0.01) infarct volumes when compared with patients without Tmax>10 s>100 mL (n=76); however, the 2 groups were otherwise well balanced. There were no significant differences in infarct growth (22.1±51.6 versus 17.8±32.4 mL; P=0.78), severe intracranial hemorrhage (PH2: 2% versus 4%; P=0.73), good outcomes (90-day mRS score, 0-2: 56% versus 59%; P=0.83), or 90-day mortality (16% versus 7%; P=0.28). On multivariate analysis, only baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (odds ratio, 1.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.34; P<0.01) and baseline infarct core volume (odds ratio, 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.08; P<0.01) were independently associated with Tmax>10 s>100 mL. There was no association between Tmax>10 s>100 mL with any PH, good outcome, or infarct growth. Conclusion: In the setting of limited baseline ischemic cores, large Tmax>10 s lesions on computed tomographic perfusion do not seem to be associated with a higher risk of parenchymal hematomas and do not preclude good outcomes in patients undergoing endovascular reperfusion with contemporary technology.
    Stroke 11/2015; DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.115.011360 · 5.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose: The role of antiepileptic drug (AED) prophylaxis after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remains unclear. This analysis describes prevalence of prophylactic AED use, as directed by treating clinicians, in a prospective ICH cohort and tests the hypothesis that it is associated with poor outcome. Methods: Analysis included 744 patients with ICH enrolled in the Ethnic/Racial Variations of Intracerebral Hemorrhage (ERICH) study before November 2012. Baseline clinical characteristics and AED use were recorded in standardized fashion. ICH location and volume were recorded from baseline neuroimaging. We analyzed differences in patient characteristics by AED prophylaxis, and we used logistic regression to test whether AED prophylaxis was associated with poor outcome. The primary outcome was 3-month modified Rankin Scale score, with 4 to 6 considered poor outcome. Results: AEDs were used for prophylaxis in 289 (39%) of the 744 subjects; of these, levetiracetam was used in 89%. Patients with lobar ICH, craniotomy, or larger hematomas were more likely to receive prophlyaxis. Although prophylactic AED use was associated with poor outcome in an unadjusted model (odds ratio, 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.88; P=0.03), this association was no longer significant after adjusting for clinical and demographic characteristics (odds ratio, 1.11; 95% confidence interval, 0.74-1.65; P=0.62). Conclusions: We found no evidence that AED use (predominantly levetiracetam) is independently associated with poor outcome. A prospective study is required to assess for a more modest effect of AED use on outcome after ICH.
    Stroke 10/2015; DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.115.010875 · 5.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose: Oral anticoagulation (OAC) plays a major role in atrial fibrillation stroke prevention but represents a contraindication to intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator. Intra-arterial therapy remains a potential reperfusion strategy in these patients; however, supporting data are scarce. Methods: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected consecutive intra-arterial therapies from October 2010 to March 2015 comparing OAC (vitamin-K antagonists and novel oral anticoagulants) versus normal hemostasis versus intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator patients. Primary safety end point is parenchymal hematoma. Secondary safety end point is 90-day mortality. Efficacy end points are successful reperfusion (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction, 2b-3) and good outcome (90-day modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2). Logistic regression for predictors of parenchymal hematoma was performed. Results: A total of 604 patients were qualified for the study. Baseline and outcomes variables were overall similar for vitamin-K antagonists (n=29) and novel oral anticoagulants (n=17) patients. When compared with normal hemostasis (n=265) and intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator (n=297), OAC (n=46) patients were older and had more comorbidities. There were no statistically significant differences in the rates of parenchymal hematoma (8% versus 5%; P=0.42), 90-day modified Rankin Scale score of 0 to 2 (30% versus 40%; P=0.26), and 90-day mortality (32% versus 26%; P=0.46) among OAC and normal hemostasis patients. Similarly, there were no significant differences between OAC and intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator patients in terms of parenchymal hematoma (8% versus 4%; P=0.16), 90-day modified Rankin Scale score of 0 to 2 (30% versus 43%; P=0.13), and 90-day mortality (32% versus 22%; P=0.18). The use of OAC was not associated with the occurrence of parenchymal hematoma on multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusions: Intra-arterial therapy seems to be safe in patients taking OACs; however, our study showed a nonsignificant increase in hemorrhage and mortality with a nonsignificant decrease in good outcomes in comparison with non-OAC patients. Although these nominal differences may have been related to older age and more comorbidities in the OAC group, larger studies are needed to confirm our findings given our limited sample size.
    Stroke 10/2015; DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.115.011285 · 5.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Intra-arterial therapy (IAT) for large vessel occlusion strokes (LVOS) has been increasingly utilized. The benefit of IAT in patients with midrange Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score (ASPECTS) remains to be established. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective analysis of LVOS with ASPECTS 5-7 treated with IAT (n = 86) or medical therapy alone (intravenous tissue plasminogen activator; n = 15) at two centers from 2009 to 2012. Definitions were as follows: symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage = any parenchymal hematoma; successful reperfusion = mTICI ≥2b; good and acceptable outcomes = 90-day mRS 0-2 and 0-3, respectively. Final infarct volumes (FIV) were calculated based on 24-hour CT/MRI scans. Results: Mean age (67 ± 14 vs. 67 ± 19 years) and baseline NIHSS (20 ± 5 vs. 20 ± 6) were similar in the two groups. Successful reperfusion was achieved in 58 (67%) IAT patients. Symptomatic and asymptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 9 (10%) and 31 (36%) IAT patients, respectively. The proportion of 90-day good and acceptable outcomes was 20 (17/86) and 33% (28/86), respectively. Successful IAT reperfusion was associated with smaller FIV (p = 0.015) and higher rates of good (p = 0.01) and acceptable (p = 0.014) outcomes. There was a strong trend towards a higher hemicraniectomy requirement in medically as compared to endovascularly treated patients (20 vs. 6%; p = 0.06) despite similar in-hospital mortality. The median FIV was significantly lower with IAT versus medical therapy [80 ml (interquartile range, 38-122) vs. 190 ml (121-267); p = 0.015]. Conclusions: Despite a relatively low probability of achieving functional independence, IAT in LVOS patients with ASPECTS 5-7 appears to result in lower degrees of disability and may lessen the need for hemicraniectomy. Therefore, it may be a reasonable option for patients and families who favor a shift from severe to moderate disability.
    09/2015; 4(1-2):30-37. DOI:10.1159/000438775
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    ABSTRACT: Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS), a surrogate of infarct volume, predicts outcome in anterior large vessel occlusion strokes. We aim to determine whether topological information captured by DWI ASPECTS contributes additional prognostic value. Adults with intracranial internal carotid artery, M1 or M2 middle carotid artery occlusions who underwent endovascular therapy were included. The primary outcome measure was poor clinical outcome (3-month modified Rankin Scale score, 3-6). Prognostic value of the 10 DWI ASPECTS regions in predicting poor outcome was determined by multivariable logistic regression, controlling for final infarct volume, age, and laterality. Two hundred and thirteen patients (mean age, 66.1±14.5 years; median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, 15) were included. Inter-rater reliability was good for DWI ASPECTS (deep regions, κ=0.72; cortical regions, κ=0.63). All DWI ASPECTS regions with the exception of the putamen were significant predictors (P<0.05) of poor outcome in univariate analyses. Statistical collinearity among ASPECTS regions was not observed. Using penalized multivariable logistic regression, only M4 (odds ratio, 2.82; 95% confidence interval, 1.39-5.76) and M6 (odds ratio, 2.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-5.3) involvement were associated with poor outcome. M6 involvement independently predicted poor outcome in right hemispheric strokes (odds ratio, 5.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-20.3), whereas M4 (odds ratio, 4.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-15.0) involvement predicted poor outcome in left hemispheric strokes adjusting for infarct volume. Topologic information modestly improved the predictive ability of a prognostic score that incorporates age, infarct volume, and hemorrhagic transformation. Involvement of the right parieto-occipital (M6) and left superior frontal (M4) regions affect clinical outcome in anterior large vessel occlusions over and above the effect of infarct volume and should be considered during prognostication. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
    Stroke 06/2015; 46(7). DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.115.009908 · 5.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sulcal effacement with preserved underlying gray-white matter junction (isolated sulcal effacement [ISE]) in acute ischemic stroke may not represent irreversible parenchymal injury. We aimed to evaluate the frequency and significance of ISE in patients with large vessel occlusion acute ischemic stroke. Consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients with middle cerebral artery M1 or internal carotid artery terminus occlusions who underwent computed tomography angiogram/perfusion followed by intra-arterial therapy were screened for ISE. Out of the 568 patients who underwent intra-arterial therapy between March 2011 and September 2014, 108 fulfilled inclusion criteria. ISE was present in 8 (7.4%) patients (age 55.7±10.5 years, 6 female, baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale 16.1±3.8, 5 middle cerebral artery-M1, and 3 internal carotid artery terminus occlusions). Computed tomography angiogram revealed engorged/dilated leptomeningeal vessels obliterating the sulci within the areas of effacement, whereas computed tomography perfusion indicated normal-to-increased cerebral blood volume and prolonged Tmax in all patients. Modified treatment in cerebral ischemia (mTICI) 2b-3 reperfusion was achieved in all patients. Follow-up imaging confirmed no infarct in the ISE area in all patients, and 5 (62%) had modified Rankin Scale 0 to 2 at 3 months. Sulcal effacement with preserved gray-white delineation is occasionally visualized in patients with proximal occlusion strokes, relates to robust leptomeningeal collaterals, and indicates preserved underlying parenchyma. ISE should not be used to exclude patients from thrombectomy. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
    Stroke 04/2015; 46(6). DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.115.009304 · 5.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Early reperfusion is critical for favorable outcomes in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Stent retrievers lead to faster and more complete reperfusion than previous technologies. Our aim is to compare the cost-effectiveness of stent retrievers to the previous mechanical thrombectomy devices. Retrospective review of endovascularly treated large-vessel AIS. Data from all consecutive patients who underwent thrombectomy from January 2012 through November 2012 were collected. Baseline characteristics, the total procedural cost, the rates of successful recanalization [modified thrombolysis in cerebral ischemia (mTICI) scores of 2b or 3], and the length of stay at the hospital were compared between the stent retriever (SR) and the non-stent retriever (NSR) groups. After excluding the patients who underwent concomitant extracranial stenting (n = 22) or received intra-arterial tissue plasminogen activator only (n = 6), the entire cohort included 150 patients. The cost of the reperfusion procedure was significantly higher in the SR compared to the NSR group (USD 13,419 vs. 9,308, p <0.001). We were unable to demonstrate a statistically significant difference in the rates of mTICI 2b/3 reperfusion (81 vs. 74%, p = 0.337) or the length of stay (11.1 ± 9.1 vs. 12.8 ± 9.6 days, p = 0.260) amongst the SR and the NSR patients. The procedural costs of thrombectomy for AIS are increasing and account for the bulk of hospitalization reimbursement. The impact of these expenditures in the long-term sustainability of stroke centers deserves greater consideration. While it is likely that the SR technology results in higher rates of optimal reperfusion, better clinical outcomes, and shorter lengths of stay, larger studies are needed to prove its cost-effectiveness.
    03/2015; 3(2):107-113. DOI:10.1159/000371729
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Progesterone has been shown to improve neurologic outcome in multiple experimental models and two early-phase trials involving patients with TBI. Methods: We conducted a double-blind, multicenter clinical trial in which patients with severe, moderate-to-severe, or moderate acute TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale score of 4 to 12, on a scale from 3 to 15, with lower scores indicating a lower level of consciousness) were randomly assigned to intravenous progesterone or placebo, with the study treatment initiated within 4 hours after injury and administered for a total of 96 hours. Efficacy was defined as an increase of 10 percentage points in the proportion of patients with a favorable outcome, as determined with the use of the stratified dichotomy of the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale score at 6 months after injury. Secondary outcomes included mortality and the Disability Rating Scale score. Results: A total of 882 of the planned sample of 1140 patients underwent randomization before the trial was stopped for futility with respect to the primary outcome. The study groups were similar with regard to baseline characteristics; the median age of the patients was 35 years, 73.7% were men, 15.2% were black, and the mean Injury Severity Score was 24.4 (on a scale from 0 to 75, with higher scores indicating greater severity). The most frequent mechanism of injury was a motor vehicle accident. There was no significant difference between the progesterone group and the placebo group in the proportion of patients with a favorable outcome (relative benefit of progesterone, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 1.06; P=0.35). Phlebitis or thrombophlebitis was more frequent in the progesterone group than in the placebo group (relative risk, 3.03; CI, 1.96 to 4.66). There were no significant differences in the other prespecified safety outcomes. Conclusions: This clinical trial did not show a benefit of progesterone over placebo in the improvement of outcomes in patients with acute TBI. (Funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and others; PROTECT III ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00822900.).
    New England Journal of Medicine 12/2014; 371(26). DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1404304 · 55.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Endovascular therapy seems to benefit a subset of patients with large vessel occlusion strokes. We aimed to develop a clinically useful tool to identify patients who are likely to benefit from endovascular therapy. Methods In a derivation cohort of consecutively treated patients with anterior circulation large vessel occlusion (Grady Memorial Hospital, N=247), independent predictors (p<0.1) of good outcome (90-day modified Rankin scale score (mRS) 0–2) were determined using logistic regression to derive the Pittsburgh Response to Endovascular therapy (PRE) score as a predictor of good outcome. The PRE score was validated in two institutional cohorts (University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC): N=393; Unitat d’Ictus Vall d’Hebron: N=204) and its discriminative power for good outcome was compared with other validated tools. Benefit of successful recanalization was assessed in PRE score groups. Results Independent predictors of good outcome in the derivation cohort (age, baseline National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score and Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS)) were used in the model: PRE score=age (years)+2×NIHSS−10×ASPECTS. PRE score was highly predictive of good outcome in the derivation cohort (area under the curve (AUC)=0.79) and validation cohorts (UPMC: AUC=0.79; UIVH: AUC=0.72) with comparable rates of good outcome in all PRE risk quartiles. PRE was superior to Totaled Health Risks In Vascular Events (THRIVE) (p=0.03) and Stroke Prognostication using Age and NIHSS (SPAN) (p=0.007), with a trend towards superiority to Houston Intra-Arterial Therapy 2 (HIAT2) (p=0.06) and iSCORE (p=0.051) in predicting good outcomes. Better outcomes were associated with successful recanalization in patients with PRE scores −24 to +49 but not in patients with PRE scores <−24 or ≥50. Conclusions The PRE score is a validated tool that predicts outcomes and may facilitate patient selection for endovascular therapy in anterior circulation large vessel occlusions.
    Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery 10/2014; 7(11). DOI:10.1136/neurintsurg-2014-011351 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose: Prognostication tools that predict good outcome in patients with anterior circulation large vessel occlusions after endovascular therapy are lacking. We aim to develop a tool that incorporates clinical and imaging data to predict outcomes after endovascular therapy. Methods: In a derivation cohort of anterior circulation large vessel occlusion stroke patients treated with endovascular therapy within 8 hours from time last seen well (n=247), we performed logistic regression to identify independent predictors of good outcome (90-day modified Rankin Scale, 0-2). Factors were weighted based on β-coefficients to derive the Pittsburgh Outcomes After Stroke Thrombectomy (POST) score. POST was validated in an institutional endovascular database (University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, n=393) and the Diffusion-Weighted Imaging Evaluation for Understanding Stroke Evolution Study-2 (DEFUSE-2) data set (n=105), as well as in patients treated beyond 8 hours (n=194) and in octogenarians (n=111). Results: In the derivation cohort, independent predictors (P<0.1) of good outcome included 24- to 72-hour final infarct volume (in cm(3), P<0.001), age (years, P<0.001), and parenchymal hematoma types 1 and 2 (H, P=0.01). POST was calculated as age+0.5×final infarct volume+15×H. Patients with POST score <60 had a 91% chance of good outcome compared with 4% with POST score ≥120. POST accurately predicted good outcomes in the derivation (area under the curve [AUC]=0.85) and validation cohorts (University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, AUC=0.81; DEFUSE-2, AUC=0.86), as well as in patients treated beyond 8 hours (AUC, 0.85) and octogenarians (AUC=0.76). POST had better predictive accuracy for good and poor outcome than the ischemic stroke predictive risk score (iSCORE). Conclusions: POST score is a validated predictor of outcome in patients with anterior circulation large vessel occlusions after endovascular therapy.
    Stroke 07/2014; 45(8). DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.005595 · 5.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Higher reperfusion rates have been established with endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). There are limited data on the comparative performance of mechanical thrombectomy devices. A retrospective single-center analysis was undertaken of all consecutive patients who underwent thrombectomy using Merci, Penumbra or stent retrievers (SR) from September 2010 to November 2012. Baseline characteristics, rates of successful recanalization (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (mTICI) score 2b-3), symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH), final infarct volume, 90-day mortality and independent functional outcomes at 90 days were compared across the three devices. Our cohort included 287 patients. There were mild imbalances in baseline characteristics with trends towards higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score in patients in the Merci group (SR=18 vs Merci=21 vs Penumbra=19, p=0.06) and lower Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) in patients in the SR group (>7: SR=51% vs Merci=61% vs Penumbra=62%, p=0.12). On univariate analysis there were no differences in the rate of sICH (SR=7% vs Merci=7% vs Penumbra=6%, p=0.921) and infarct volume (SR=61.5 mL vs Merci=69.5 mL vs Penumbra=59.2 mL, p=0.621). Trends towards better functional outcomes were found with Penumbra and SR vs Merci (41% vs 36% vs 25%, respectively, p=0.079). Complete or near complete reperfusion (mTICI 2b-3) was higher in the SR and Penumbra groups than in the Merci group (86% vs 78% vs 70%, respectively, p=0.027). Binary logistic regression showed that SR was an independent predictor of good functional outcome (OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.018 to 5.048; p=0.045). Although our initial data confirm the superiority of SR technology over the Merci device, there was no significant difference in near complete/complete reperfusion, final infarct volumes or clinical outcomes between SR and Penumbra thromboaspiration.
    Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery 03/2014; 7(3). DOI:10.1136/neurintsurg-2013-011037 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We explore the impact of discharge disposition (independent rehabilitation facility (IRF) vs skilled nursing facility (SNF)) on 90 day outcomes in persons with stroke who received acute endovascular treatment. Using a database from a single primary care stroke center, discharge disposition, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), Totaled Health Risks in Vascular Events (THRIVE), Houston Intra-Arterial Therapy 2 (HIAT-2), and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) scores, and successful reperfusion were obtained. Univariate analysis was performed to assess predictors of good clinical outcome, as defined by 90 day modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores ≤2. A binary logistic regression model was used to determine the impact of placement to an IRF versus an SNF on clinical outcomes. 147 subjects were included in the analysis with a mean age of63±14 years and median NIHSS of 18 (IQR 14-21). Final infarct volumes, and modified APACHE II, THRIVE, and HIAT-2 scores were similar between those discharged to an IRF and those discharged to an SNF.However, their 90 day outcomes were significantly different, with far fewer patients at SNFs achieving good clinical outcomes (25% vs 46%; p=0.023). Disposition to SNF was significantly associated with a lower probability of achieving an mRS score of 0-2 at 90 days (OR = 0.337 (95% CI 0.12 to 0.94); p<0.04). Subjects discharged to SNFs and IRFs after thrombectomy have similar medical and neurological severity at admission and similar final infarct volumes at discharge. Despite these similarities, patients discharged to an SNF had a significantly lower probability of achieving a good neurological outcome. These results have implications for future acute stroke trial design.
    Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery 01/2014; 7(2). DOI:10.1136/neurintsurg-2013-011045 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pretreatment Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Scores (ASPECTS) is associated with clinical outcomes. The rate of decline between subsequent images, however, may be more predictive of outcomes as it integrates time and physiology. A cohort of patients transferred from six primary stroke centers and treated with intra-arterial therapy (IAT) was retrospectively studied. Absolute ASPECTS decay was defined as ((ASPECTS First CT-ASPECTS Second CT)/hours elapsed between images). A logistic regression model was performed to determine if the rate of ASPECTS decay predicted good outcomes at 90 days (modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2). 106 patients with a mean age of 66±14 years and a median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of 19 (IQR 15-23) were analyzed. Median time between initial CT at the outside hospital to repeat CT at our facility was 2.7 h (IQR 2.0-3.6). Patients with good outcomes had lower rates of absolute ASPECTS decay compared with those who did not (0.14±0.23 score/h vs 0.49±0.39 score/h; p<0.001). In multivariable modeling, the absolute rate of ASPECTS decay (OR 0.043; 95% CI 0.004 to 0.471; p=0.01) was a stronger predictor of good patient outcome than static pretreatment ASPECTS obtained before IAT (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.38 to 1.04; p=0.075). In practical terms, every 1 unit increase in ASPECTS decline per hour correlates with a 23-fold lower probability of a good outcome. Patients with faster rates of ASPECTS decay during inter-facility transfers are associated with worse clinical outcomes. This value may reflect the rate of physiological infarct expansion and thus serve as a tool in patient selection for IAT.
    Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery 01/2014; 7(1). DOI:10.1136/neurintsurg-2013-011048 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    Circulation 09/2013; 128(16). DOI:10.1161/CIR.0b013e3182a8fc62 · 14.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) have consistently demonstrated variation in incidence, location, age at presentation, and outcomes among non-Hispanic white, black, and Hispanic populations. We report here the design and methods for this large, prospective, multi-center case-control study of ICH. The Ethnic/Racial Variations of Intracerebral Hemorrhage (ERICH) study is a multi-center, prospective case-control study of ICH. Cases are identified by hot-pursuit and enrolled using standard phenotype and risk factor information and include neuroimaging and blood sample collection. Controls are centrally identified by random digit dialing to match cases by age (±5 years), race, ethnicity, sex, and metropolitan region. As of March 22, 2013, 1655 cases of ICH had been recruited into the study, which is 101.5% of the target for that date, and 851 controls had been recruited, which is 67.2% of the target for that date (1267 controls) for a total of 2506 subjects, which is 86.5% of the target for that date (2897 subjects). Of the 1655 cases enrolled, 1640 cases had the case interview entered into the database, of which 628 (38%) were non-Hispanic black, 458 (28%) were non-Hispanic white, and 554 (34%) were Hispanic. Of the 1197 cases with imaging submitted, 876 (73.2%) had a 24 hour follow-up CT available. In addition to CT imaging, 607 cases have had MRI evaluation. The ERICH study is a large, case-control study of ICH with particular emphasis on recruitment of minority populations for the identification of genetic and epidemiological risk factors for ICH and outcomes after ICH.
    Stroke 09/2013; 44(10). DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.113.002332 · 5.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Studies comparing the efficacy of intra-arterial therapy (IAT) and medical therapy in reducing final infarct volume (FIV) in intracranial large-vessel occlusions (ILVOs) are lacking. OBJECTIVES To assess whether patients with ILVOs who received IAT have smaller FIVs than patients who received either intravenous tissue plasminogen activator therapy (IVT) or no reperfusion therapy (NRT) and to determine a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) threshold score that identifies patients most likely to benefit from IAT. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study of patients with ILVOs between 2009 and 2011. SETTING Two large-volume stroke centers. PARTICIPANTS Adults with anterior circulation ILVOs who presented within 360 minutes from the time last seen as normal. Patients with isolated extracranial occlusions were not included. EXPOSURE Intra-arterial therapy, IVT, or NRT. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Final infarct volumes, rates of acceptable outcome defined as a modified Rankin Scale score of 0 to 3 at hospital discharge, and NIHSS threshold scores. RESULTS A total of 203 consecutive patients with ILVOs were evaluated. Baseline characteristics were similar among the 3 groups. The median infarct volume was significantly smaller for the IAT group (42 cm3) than for the IVT group (109 cm3; P = .001) or the NRT group (110 cm3; P < .01). A higher magnitude of infarct volume reduction in more proximal occlusions was noted in the IAT group compared with the IVT and NRT groups combined: internal carotid artery terminus (75 vs 190 cm3; P < .001), M1 middle cerebral artery (39 vs 109 cm3; P = .004), and M2 middle cerebral artery (33 vs 59 cm3; P = .04) occlusions. Patients were stratified based on NIHSS score at presentation (8-13, 14-19, and ≥20). For patients with an NIHSS score of 14 or higher at presentation, IAT significantly reduced FIV (46 cm3 with IAT vs 149 cm3 with IVT or NRT; P < .001) compared with patients with an NIHSS score of 8 to 13 (22 cm3 with IAT vs 44 cm3 with IVT or NRT; P < .40). Patients with an NIHSS score of 14 or higher who received IAT appear to benefit most from IAT. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Our data suggest a greater reduction of FIV with IAT compared with either IVT or NRT. Moreover, patients with an NIHSS score of 14 or higher may be the best candidates for endovascular reperfusion therapy.
    05/2013; 70(7):1-6. DOI:10.1001/jamaneurol.2013.413
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    ABSTRACT: Background The efficacy of hypothermia as a neuroprotectant has yet to be demonstrated in acute ischemic stroke. We conducted a phase I pilot study to assess the feasibility and safety of performing intravascular hypothermia after definitive intra-arterial reperfusion therapy (IAT). Methods ReCCLAIM (Reperfusion and Cooling in Cerebral Acute Ischemia) is a prospective single-arm open-label clinical trial conducted between May and August 2012 at Grady Memorial Hospital. Twenty patients with Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) 5–7 and NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score > 13 were enrolled and treated with intravascular cooling immediately after IAT. The incidence of pneumonia, deep vein thrombosis, cardiac arrhythmias and postoperative hemorrhages was documented for the entire length of stay. Secondary outcomes included blood–brain barrier (BBB) breakdown on gadolinium-enhanced MRIs and 90-day modified Rankin scores (mRS). Results The mean age, median NIHSS score and median final infarct volume were 59.7±14.6 years, 19 (IQR16–22) and 78 cm3 (IQR 16–107), respectively. The average time to the target temperature (33°C) was 64±50 min. Intracranial hemorrhages were found in three patients, of which one was symptomatic. Evidence of BBB breakdown was observed on 3 of 14 MRIs (21%). Six patients died due to withdrawal of care, whereas six patients (30%) achieved mRS of 0–2 at 90 days. In a binary logistical regression model comparing ReCCLAIM patients with 68 historical controls at our institution, hypothermia was protective against intracerebral hemorrhages (OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.56; p<0.01). Conclusions Hypothermia can be safely performed after definitive IAT in patients with large pretreatment core infarcts. A phase II study randomizing patients to hypothermia or normothermia is needed to properly assess the efficacy of hypothermia as a neuroprotectant for reperfusion injury. Trial registration number NCT01585597.
    Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery 03/2013; 6(2). DOI:10.1136/neurintsurg-2013-010656 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Comprehensive stroke centers allow for regionalization of subspecialty stroke care. Efficacy of endovascular treatments, however, may be limited by delays in patient transfer. Our goal was to identify where these delays occurred and to assess the impact of such delays on patient outcome. Methods and results: This was a retrospective study evaluating patients treated with endovascular therapy from November 2010 to July 2012 at our institution. We compared patients transferred from outside hospitals with locally treated patients with respect to demographics, imaging, and treatment times. Good outcomes, as defined by 90-day modified Rankin Scale scores of 0 to 2, were analyzed by transfer status as well as time from initial computed tomography to groin puncture ("picture-to-puncture" time). A total of 193 patients were analyzed, with a mean age of 65.8 ± 14.5 years and median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of 19 (interquartile range, 15-23). More than two thirds of the patients (132 [68%]) were treated from referring facilities. Outside transfers were noted to have longer picture-to-puncture times (205 minutes [interquartile range, 162-274] versus 89 minutes [interquartile range, 70-119]; P<0.001), which was attributable to the delays in transfer. This corresponded to fewer patients with favorable Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Scores on preprocedural computed tomographic imaging (Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Scores >7: 50% versus 76%; P<0.001) and significantly worse clinical outcomes (29% versus 51%; P=0.003). In a logistic regression model, picture-to-puncture times were independently associated with good outcomes (odds ratio, 0.994; 95% confidence interval, 0.990-0.999; P=0.009). Conclusions: Delays in picture-to-puncture times for interhospital transfers reduce the probability of good outcomes among treated patients. Strategies to reduce such delays herald an opportunity for hospitals to improve patient outcomes.
    Circulation 02/2013; 127(10). DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.000506 · 14.43 Impact Factor

  • Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery 07/2012; 4(Suppl 1):A11-A12. DOI:10.1136/neurintsurg-2012-010455a.20 · 2.77 Impact Factor
  • R. Nogueira · B. Glenn · S. Belagaje · A. Anderson · M. Frankel · F. Nahab · R. Gupta ·

    Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery 07/2012; 4(Suppl 1):A70-A70. DOI:10.1136/neurintsurg-2012-010455c.56 · 2.77 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

6k Citations
708.28 Total Impact Points


  • 1999-2015
    • Emory University
      • Department of Neurology
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • 2001-2013
    • University of Cincinnati
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Department of Neurosciences
      San Diego, CA, United States
    • University of Texas Medical School
      • Department of Neurology
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2007
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      Birmingham, Alabama, United States
  • 2002
    • Detroit Medical Center
      Detroit, Michigan, United States