M. Ocaido

Makerere University, Kampala, Central Region, Uganda

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Publications (15)33.27 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Cystic echinococcosis is regarded as endemic in sub-Saharan Africa; however, for most countries only scarce data, if any, exist. For most of the continent, information about burden of disease is not available; neither are data for the animal hosts involved in the lifecycle of the parasite, thus making introduction of preventive measures difficult. Available evidence suggests that several species or strains within the Echinococcus granulosus complex are prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa and that these strains might be associated with varying virulence and host preference. Treatment strategies (chemotherapy, percutaneous radiological techniques, but mainly surgery) predominantly target active disease. Prevention strategies encompass anthelmintic treatment of dogs, slaughter hygiene, surveillance, and health-educational measures. Existing data are suggestive of unusual clinical presentations of cystic echinococcosis in some parts of the continent, for which the causes are speculative.
    The Lancet Infectious Diseases 11/2012; 12(11):871-80. · 19.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cystic echinococcosis occurs in most regions of sub-Saharan Africa, but the frequency of this zoonosis differs considerably among and within countries. Especially human cases seem to be focally distributed. A number of environmental and behavioural factors partially explain this pattern, i.e. density of livestock, presence of dogs, uncontrolled slaughter, and hygiene. In addition, the various taxa of Echinococcus spp. are known to differ considerably in infectivity to different host species including humans. Genetic characterizations of isolates, which are necessary to evaluate the impact of this factor - so far done in only a few countries - indicate that the diversity of Echinococcus spp. in Sub-Saharan Africa is greater than on any other continent. The very incomplete data which are available show that sympatrical taxa may infect different hosts, others may be geographically restricted, some life cycles involve livestock, others wild animals. Possible implications of this complexity for public health, livestock economy and conservation are briefly discussed.
    Veterinary Parasitology 04/2011; 181(1):43-7. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The first survey on sickle cell disease (SCD) done in Uganda in 1949, reported the district of Bundibugyo in Western Uganda to have the highest sickle cell trait (SCT) prevalence (45%). This is believed to be the highest in the whole world. According to the same survey, the prevalence of SCT in the districts of Mbale and Sironko in the East was 20-28%, whilst the districts of Mbarara and Ntungamo in the West had 1-5%. No follow-up surveys have been conducted over the past 60 years. SCA accounts for approximately 16.2% of all pediatric deaths in Uganda. The pattern of SCT inheritance, however, predicts likely changes in the prevalence and distribution of the SCT. The objective of the study therefore was to establish the current prevalence of the SCT in Uganda. This study was a cross sectional survey which was carried out in the districts of Mbale and Sironko in the Eastern, Mbarara/Ntungamo and Bundibugyo in Western Uganda. The participants were children (6 months-5 yrs). Blood was collected from each subject and analyzed for hemoglobin S using cellulose acetate Hb electrophoresis. The established prevalence of the SCT (As) in Eastern Uganda was 17.5% compared to 13.4% and 3% in Bundibugyo and Mbarara/Ntungamo respectively. 1.7% of the children in Eastern Uganda tested positive for haemoglobin ss relative to 3% in Bundibugyo, giving gene frequencies of 0.105 and 0.097 for the recessive gene respectively. No ss was detected in Mbarara/Ntungamo. A shift in the prevalence of the SCT and ss in Uganda is notable and may be explained by several biological and social factors. This study offers some evidence for the possible outcome of intermarriages in reducing the incidence of the SCT.
    BMC Blood Disorders 01/2010; 10:5.
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost benefit of screening for sickle-cell disease among infants at district health centres in Uganda using sickling, solubility tests and the peripheral blood film method. METHODS: Pilot screening services were established at district health centres. Cost benefit analysis (CBA) was performed in four scenarios: A1 – where there are no sickle-cell screening services at district health centres and all children are referred either to Mulago national referral hospital or A2 – a regional hospital for haemoglobin (Hb) electrophoresis; B1 – when there are screening services at district health centres, only positive samples are taken either to Mulago Hospital or B2 – the regional hospital for confirmation using haemoglobin electrophoresis. Calculations were done in Uganda shillings (USh). RESULTS: Initial operational costs were high for all scenarios but variably reduced in the subsequent years. Scenarios A1 and A2 were very sensitive compared with B1 and B2. Scenario A1 had the highest screening costs in the subsequent years, costing over 62 000 USh per test in both eastern and western Uganda. Scenario B2 was sensitive and cheaper when using the sickling test, but was expensive and insensitive when using the solubility test and more insensitive though cheaper when using the peripheral blood film method. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: Screening children in Mulago hospital using haemoglobin electrophoresis (A1) was very expensive although it was sensitive. Screening the children at four health centres using the sickling method and confirming positive samples at a regional hospital (B2) was both cheap and sensitive and is therefore recommended.
    South African medical journal = Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir geneeskunde 12/2009; 99(12):887-891. · 1.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the cost benefit of screening for sickle-cell disease among infants at district health centres in Uganda using sickling, solubility tests and the peripheral blood film method. Pilot screening services were established at district health centres. Cost benefit analysis (CBA) was performed in four scenarios: A1 - where there are no sickle-cell screening services at district health centres and all children are referred either to Mulago tertiary referral hospital or A2 - a regional hospital for haemoglobin (Hb) electrophoresis; B1 - when there are screening services at district health centres, only positive samples are taken either to Mulago Hospital or B2 - the regional hospital for confirmation using haemoglobin electrophoresis. Calculations were done in Uganda shillings (USh). Initial operational costs were high for all scenarios but variably reduced in the subsequent years. Scenarios A1 and A2 were very sensitive compared with B1 and B2. Scenario A1 had the highest screening costs in the subsequent years, costing over 62 000 USh per test in both eastern and western Uganda. Scenario B2 was sensitive and cheaper when using the sickling test, but was expensive and insensitive when using the solubility test and more insensitive though cheaper when using the peripheral blood film method. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION: Screening children in Mulago hospital using haemoglobin electrophoresis (A1) was very expensive although it was sensitive. Screening the children at four health centres using the sickling method and confirming positive samples at a regional hospital (B2) was both cheap and sensitive and is therefore recommended.
    South African medical journal = Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir geneeskunde 12/2009; 99(12):887-91. · 1.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The management of sickle cell disease (SCD) has remained insurmountable in developing countries such as Uganda, because most communities are not aware of it. To determine knowledge gaps, attitudes and beliefs of the communities about sickle cell disease in Eastern and Western Uganda. Cross sectional descriptive study. The districts of Sironko and Mbale in Eastern Uganda and Mbarara and Ntungamo in Western Uganda. Households, students and health workers. Household respondents from Eastern Uganda were more aware of SCD than those from Western (p < 0.001), with the majority reporting that they had seen more people with SCD in their communities than those from the West (p < 0.001). Fewer (< 1.9%) believed SCD was due to witch craft. Eight per cent of household respondents in Eastern believed it was a curse from God compared to 2% in the West. Less than 18% of the household respondents knew they could have children with SCD and (< 52%) of health workers knew SCD screening methods. Fewer (< 14%) of the health workers had participated in screening. Less than 20% of the respondents knew their sickle cell status. Respondents from Eastern Uganda were more aware of SCD than those from Western. Minority of the respondents knew their SCD status and few health staff knew how to screen it. There is need to sensitise communities and policy makers about prevention, screening and treatment of SCD.
    East African medical journal 09/2009; 86(9):442-9.
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    ABSTRACT: A study was conducted in Nakasongola district to determine socioeconomic factors that influence the use of acaricides on livestock. The information was got through focus group discussions (FGDs) and use of a questionnaire. Questionnaire was administered to one hundred households. Acaricides were used to kill ticks and biting flies which transmit diseases and cause discomfort to livestock. But to a less extent was also done for cosmetic purposes. Most of the farmers were aware of the correct acaricide dilutions as recommended by the manufacturers but they ignored them. But through trial and error came up with their own dilutions, which they said were very cost-effective. Further, they experimented on concoctions of different acaricide mixes and came up with acaricide combinations which were more effective in killing ticks and flies. Veterinarians and acaricide manufacturing companies had called this a malpractice. On the contrary, this should be treated as an innovation by farmers in their endeavour to find a cheaper sustainable method of controlling ticks and flies. Further research should therefore be done on these working "malpractices".
    Tropical Animal Health and Production 07/2009; 42(1):131-6. · 1.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A longitudinal study was done to monitor incidence of livestock diseases in ranch and pastoral herds around Lake Mburo National Park, in South-western Uganda with a high level of wildlife (impala and zebra) and livestock (cattle and goats) interactions. East Coast Fever (ECF), abortions, helminthosis and starvation due to drought were major livestock disease problems encountered. ECF was a major disease affecting mainly calves, causing mortality both in ranch (8.5%) and pastoral (8.2%) herds. Meanwhile, drought was a more serious in pastoral than ranch herds (p < 0.05), killing 28.5% and 5.8% of adult female cattle in respective production systems. Other endemic diseases found and controlled by vaccination were FMD, CBPP and blackquarter. In both cattle and goats helminthosis was causing mortalities, 3.3% and 0.8% among calves in pastoral and ranches respectively; and 4.8% and 6.9% among kids and sub-adult goats respectively. Many cases of abortions occurred among pastoral herds. In conclusion, the disease incidence among livestock was the same or relatively low as compared to other areas without wildlife.
    Tropical Animal Health and Production 03/2009; 41(7):1299-308. · 1.09 Impact Factor
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    B. Owuor, D. Musyimi, M. Ocaido
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    ABSTRACT: An investigation was undertaken to establish the influence of rooting media and application of hormones and length of cutting on survival and rooting of plagiotropic stem cuttings of large sour plum (Ximenia caffra sond) at Botanical garden of the Department of Botany and Horticulture, at Maseno University, Kenya during the year 2006-2007. Cuttings were collected from Kitmikayi and Gembe Hills sacred site in Lake Victoria region in Kenya. Two experiments were established. The first experiment evaluated the effect of three media substrates (Sand (SA), sawdust (Sd), sand: sawdust mixture (Sa/Sd)) and two stem-cutting sizes (single and double node) on components of rooting and eventual rooting of the stem cuttings. The second experiment evaluated the effect of different concentrations of ∝-Naphthallic acetic acid hormone (0, 20, 80,140, and 200 mg/l) and two types of rooting substrates on survival and rooting of plagiotropic stem cuttings. Rooting media, stem cutting size and different concentrations of ∝-NAA hormone had no significant influence on survival, callus formation, formation of root primordia and rooting of the stem cuttings (p > 0.05). Single node cuttings had similar survival (59%), with double node stem cuttings (56%) in sand substrate. The study presents evidence of successful rooting of large sour plum using the two types of substrates with or without hormone treatment. The use of these substrates with single node stem cuttings could facilitate faster domestication of large sour plum in an effort to improve income for poor subsistence farmers in the Lake Victoria basin.
    01/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: A longitudinal economic impact study of Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases (TTBDs) in cattle around Lake Mburo National Park (LMNP) was done. Impact was valued using Uganda Shilling (Ug. Shs) (exchange rate of 1USD to Ug. Shs 1,420). The costs for controlling TTBDs was constituting 85.6 +/- 3.2% (pastoral) and 73.8 +/- 4.2% (ranches) to total disease control costs. The main costs were on tick control, constituting 83.1% (ranches) and 87.9% (pastoral). In pastoral herds, the costs were negatively correlated to herd size (r = -0.99). The mean annual cost per cattle for controlling TTBDs for ranch and pastoral herds was similar Ug. Shs 5,900 +/- 545. The mean annual Economic Cost (EC) of TTBDs per cattle was not significantly different (p > 0.05) between pastoral (Ug. Shs 6,700 +/- 580) and ranch herds (Ug. Shs 7,600 +/- 970). The mean annual EC per cattle was negatively correlated (r = -0.99) with herd size in pastoral systems contrary to positive correlation (r = 0.99) observed among the ranches. The major component of EC of TTBDs of 88.2% (pastoral) and 78.6% (ranches) was due to their control. The other component was owed to mortality, which was positively correlated (p < 0.01) to the ranch herd size. The total annual EC of TTBDs around LMNP was Ug. Shs 437,754,600 (USD 308,144).
    Tropical Animal Health and Production 10/2008; 41(5):731-9. · 1.09 Impact Factor
  • M. Ocaido, L. Siefert, J. Baranga
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    ABSTRACT: A study was performed in and around Lake Mburo National Park (LMNP) to identify common helminths that parasitize both game and livestock. Various techniques including floatation, Baerman and sedimentation tests, faecal culturing and post-mortem were used to identify helminths recovered during the survey. Identification was based on egg, larval and adult helminth developmental stages. Results showed that 22 species of parasitic nematodes, lungworms, ascaris, trematodes and tapeworms occur in both wild game and livestock found in and around the national park. The significance of the findings to helminth cross-infection among game, livestock and man is discussed.RésuméOn a effectué une étude autour et dans le Parc National du lac Mburo (LMNP) afin d'identifier les helminthes communs qui parasitent le gibier et le bétail. On a utilisé diverses techniques comme les tests de flottation, de Baerman et de sédimentation, la mise en culture des excréments et les analyses post-mortem pour identifier les helminthes découverts au cours de la recherche. L'identification s'est basée sur le stade de l'œuf, et les stades larvaire et adulte du développement des helminthes. Les résultats ont montré qu'il y a 22 espèces de nématodes parasites, des vers des poumons, des ascaris, des trématodes et des ténias qui affectent tant le bétail que le gibier dans et autour du parc national. On discute de la signification de ces découvertes pour l'infection par les helminthes croisée entre bétail, gibier et hommes.
    African Journal of Ecology 04/2004; 42(1):42 - 49. · 0.63 Impact Factor
  • M. Ocaido, C. Dranzoa, P. Cheli
    African Journal of Ecology 01/2004; 41(4):356 - 359. · 0.63 Impact Factor
  • African Journal of Ecology 03/2003; 41(1):111 - 113. · 0.63 Impact Factor
  • M. Ocaido, L. Siefert, J. Baranga
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    ABSTRACT: The study was done in Lake Mburo area, Uganda, consisting of Lake Mburo National Park and surrounding ranches. The study involved monitoring changes of output of helminth eggs per gram (e.p.g.) by impala for 12 months. Fresh faecal samples, 178 in total, were collected from the rangeland and subjected to floatation and culture tests. There was a peak faecal e.p.g. output from March to April and from October to November. This period coincided with time of high rainfall and calving peak of impala. There was no faecal e.p.g. observed during the dry spell from June to July.RésuméCette étude fut menée dans la région du Lac Mburo en Uganda, comprenant le Lake Mburo National Park et les ranchs avoisinants. Elle a impliqué la surveillance continue des variations de l’expulsion d’oeufs d’helminthes par gramme (e.p.g.) par les impalas durant 12 mois. Au total, 178 échantillons fécaux frais furent collectés dans la zone d’étude et soumis à des tests de flottation et de culture. On a constaté un pic d’expulsion d’e.p.g. fécaux de mars à avril et d’octobre à novembre. Cette période coïncidait à l’époque des fortes pluies et du pic des mises bas de l’impala. On n’a observé aucune e.p.g. fécale durant la période sèche de juin à juillet.
    African Journal of Ecology 12/2001; 37(3):327 - 333. · 0.63 Impact Factor
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    C. Dranzoa, M. Ocaido, P. Katete
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    ABSTRACT: In a study from October, 1996 to March, 1997, 34 pigeons in three different locations were studied for parasites. The majority of birds in Nakulabye appeared clinically sick, while those within Makerere University and Wandegeya were apparently healthy. Biometric data were taken for each bird and, during the process, ectoparasites were collected. Faecal and blood samples were obtained. The study of ectoparasites revealed that Pseudolynchia canariensis (the 'pigeon fly') was the most prevalent parasite (100%). The louse Columbicola columbae was next in prevalence (94.1%). It is postulated that the pigeon fly transports this parasite. Three lice of economic importance were found: Menopon gallinae, Menacanthus stramineus and Chelopistes meleagridis. Cestodes were the only helminths found, occurring in 23.5% of the birds. Identification of the cestodes was not possible. Haemoparasites were mainly of two genera, Haemoproteus and Plasmodium. Haemaproteus was the most prevalent (76.5%). This was possibly due to the high abundance of its vector, P. canariensis.
    Avian Pathology 04/1999; 28(2):119-124. · 1.73 Impact Factor