Michael Ocaido

Makerere University, Kampala, Central Region, Uganda

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Publications (21)37.08 Total impact

  • Nantima N · Ocaido M · Davies J. · Dione M. · Okoth E. · Mugisha A · Bishop R
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    ABSTRACT: A cross-sectional survey was carried out to characterize the pig production systems in four districts along the Kenya-Uganda border. Information was collected by administering structured questionnaires to 645 households in 32 randomly selected clusters. The study showed that the majority of the farmers owned very small pig herds (2.4±0.1) which were mainly tethered. Their main objective for pig keeping was income generation. Decisions on pig purchases were predominantly made by either women or by women and men in collaboration while day to day care of the animals was performed by women. Disease especially African swine fever (ASF) was considered to be the biggest risk to pig investment, while feeding was the biggest production constraint. Studies that look into cheaper locally available feed options should be undertaken to enable the farmers solve the feed constraint. Sensitization of farmers to adopt biosecurity measures would reduce disease risk especially ASF risk.
    Livestock Research for Rural Development 08/2015; 27(8).
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    ABSTRACT: African swine fever (ASF) is a fatal, haemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs, that poses a serious threat to pig farmers and is currently endemic in domestic pigs in most of sub-Saharan Africa. To obtain insight into the factors related to ASF outbreaks at the farm-level, a longitudinal study was performed in one of the major pig producing areas in central Uganda. Potential risk factors associated with outbreaks of ASF were investigated including the possible presence of apparently healthy ASF-virus (ASFV) infected pigs, which could act as long-term carriers of the virus. Blood and serum were sampled from 715 pigs (241 farms) and 649 pigs (233 farms) to investigate presence of ASFV and antibodies, during the periods of June-October 2010 and March-June 2011, respectively. To determine the potential contribution of different risks to ASF spread, a questionnaire-based survey was administered to farmers to assess the association between ASF outbreaks during the study period and the risk factors. Fifty-one (21 %) and 13 (5.6 %) farms reported an ASF outbreak on their farms in the previous one to two years and during the study period, respectively. The incidence rate for ASF prior to the study period was estimated at 14.1 per 100 pig farm-years and 5.6 per 100 pig farm-years during the study. Three pigs tested positive for ASFV using real-time PCR, but none tested positive for ASFV specific antibodies using two different commercial ELISA tests. There was no evidence for existence of pigs that were long-term carriers for the virus based on the analysis of blood and serum as there were no seropositive pigs and the only three ASFV DNA positive pigs were acutely infected and were linked to outbreaks reported by farmers during the study. Potential ASF risk factors were present on both small and medium-scale pig farms, although small scale farms exhibited a higher proportion with multiple potential risk factors (like borrowing boars for sows mating, buying replacement from neighboring farms without ascertaining health status, etc) and did not implement any biosecurity measures. However, no risk factors were significantly associated with ASF reports during the study.
    BMC Veterinary Research 05/2015; 11(1):106. DOI:10.1186/s12917-015-0426-5 · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Taenia solium cysticercosis is a disease of pigs and humans populations considered endemic in many developing countries of Latin America, Africa, and South East Asia having serious impact on public health and agriculture. We conducted an in-depth comparative analysis of literature on the disease situation and predisposing factors in selected countries known to be at the interface of poverty-emerging livestock systems-zoonoses and with a growing small holder pig industry. Transmission, methods of diagnosis and employed control strategies of T. solium infection in pig and human populations in these countries are also discussed. Limited knowledge on porcine cysticercosis (PC) by various stakeholders expected to be key players in its control has undermined efforts for eliminating this potentially eradicable condition. Poor pig production practices, poor hygiene, and sanitation habits have also been important in the maintenance of the T. solium life-cycle. The major gaps identified in this review include scanty current information on PC prevalence in pigs with hardly any reports on the condition in humans in most developing countries. Factors affecting pattern of the infection and how they interact at the different levels of the pig value chain have not been exhaustively studied. Information on socioeconomic and public health impact is inadequate and not current.
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    ABSTRACT: A cross-sectional survey was carried out to assess risk factors associated with occurrence of African swine fever (ASF) outbreaks in smallholder pig farms in four districts along Kenya-Uganda border. Information was collected by administering questionnaires to 642 randomly selected pig households in the study area. The study showed that the major risk factors that influenced ASF occurrence were purchase of pigs in the previous year (p < 0.000) and feeding of pigs with swill (p < 0.024). By employing cluster analysis, three clusters of pig production types were identified based on production characteristics that were found to differ significantly between districts. The most vulnerable cluster to ASF was households with the highest reported number of ASF outbreaks and composed of those that practiced free range at least some of the time. The majority of the households in this cluster were from Busia district in Uganda. On the other hand, the least vulnerable cluster to ASF composed of households that had the least number of pig purchases, minimal swill feeding, and less treatment for internal and external parasites. The largest proportion of households in this cluster was from Busia district Kenya. The study recommended the need to sensitize farmers to adopt proper biosecurity practices such as total confinement of pigs, treatment of swill, isolation of newly purchased pigs for at least 2 weeks, and provision of incentives for farmers to report suspected outbreaks to authorities and rapid confirmation of outbreaks.
    Tropical Animal Health and Production 01/2015; 47(3). DOI:10.1007/s11250-015-0768-9 · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Uganda has the largest pig industry in eastern Africa, with majority of farmers still smallholders. African swine fever (ASF) is arguably one of the major constraints in the region, where it is considered endemic. Although the sylvatic cycle exists here, the pig-pig cycle of transmission is more important. The pig value chain is one critical area where there is need for study of the role it plays in the spread of ASF. In this study, different practices and their association with the transmission of ASF within and between farms were investigated on 101 pig farms in Uganda. Practices by 30 traders in pigs and pig products (slaughter slab, pork butchery and roasted pork restaurant operators) were investigated in the districts of Kabarole, Mityana, Moyo, Mukono, Soroti, and Tororo. Key informant interviews with the District Veterinary Officers (DVOs) about pig trade, pig slaughter infrastructure, ASF status and its management in the districts were conducted as well between May-November 2011. Questionnaires were administered to both pig farmers and the traders. Twenty six percent of the farmers reported having had the disease on the farm in the last one year. Although none of the risk factors was statistically significant for ASF outbreaks, results demonstrated presence of potential risk factors for ASF on the farms and the rest of the pig value chain.
    Livestock Research for Rural Development 05/2014; 26(5).
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    ABSTRACT: Cystic echinococcosis is regarded as endemic in sub-Saharan Africa; however, for most countries only scarce data, if any, exist. For most of the continent, information about burden of disease is not available; neither are data for the animal hosts involved in the lifecycle of the parasite, thus making introduction of preventive measures difficult. Available evidence suggests that several species or strains within the Echinococcus granulosus complex are prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa and that these strains might be associated with varying virulence and host preference. Treatment strategies (chemotherapy, percutaneous radiological techniques, but mainly surgery) predominantly target active disease. Prevention strategies encompass anthelmintic treatment of dogs, slaughter hygiene, surveillance, and health-educational measures. Existing data are suggestive of unusual clinical presentations of cystic echinococcosis in some parts of the continent, for which the causes are speculative.
    The Lancet Infectious Diseases 11/2012; 12(11):871-80. DOI:10.1016/S1473-3099(12)70155-X · 19.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cystic echinococcosis occurs in most regions of sub-Saharan Africa, but the frequency of this zoonosis differs considerably among and within countries. Especially human cases seem to be focally distributed. A number of environmental and behavioural factors partially explain this pattern, i.e. density of livestock, presence of dogs, uncontrolled slaughter, and hygiene. In addition, the various taxa of Echinococcus spp. are known to differ considerably in infectivity to different host species including humans. Genetic characterizations of isolates, which are necessary to evaluate the impact of this factor - so far done in only a few countries - indicate that the diversity of Echinococcus spp. in Sub-Saharan Africa is greater than on any other continent. The very incomplete data which are available show that sympatrical taxa may infect different hosts, others may be geographically restricted, some life cycles involve livestock, others wild animals. Possible implications of this complexity for public health, livestock economy and conservation are briefly discussed.
    Veterinary Parasitology 04/2011; 181(1):43-7. DOI:10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.04.022 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The first survey on sickle cell disease (SCD) done in Uganda in 1949, reported the district of Bundibugyo in Western Uganda to have the highest sickle cell trait (SCT) prevalence (45%). This is believed to be the highest in the whole world. According to the same survey, the prevalence of SCT in the districts of Mbale and Sironko in the East was 20-28%, whilst the districts of Mbarara and Ntungamo in the West had 1-5%. No follow-up surveys have been conducted over the past 60 years. SCA accounts for approximately 16.2% of all pediatric deaths in Uganda. The pattern of SCT inheritance, however, predicts likely changes in the prevalence and distribution of the SCT. The objective of the study therefore was to establish the current prevalence of the SCT in Uganda. This study was a cross sectional survey which was carried out in the districts of Mbale and Sironko in the Eastern, Mbarara/Ntungamo and Bundibugyo in Western Uganda. The participants were children (6 months-5 yrs). Blood was collected from each subject and analyzed for hemoglobin S using cellulose acetate Hb electrophoresis. The established prevalence of the SCT (As) in Eastern Uganda was 17.5% compared to 13.4% and 3% in Bundibugyo and Mbarara/Ntungamo respectively. 1.7% of the children in Eastern Uganda tested positive for haemoglobin ss relative to 3% in Bundibugyo, giving gene frequencies of 0.105 and 0.097 for the recessive gene respectively. No ss was detected in Mbarara/Ntungamo. A shift in the prevalence of the SCT and ss in Uganda is notable and may be explained by several biological and social factors. This study offers some evidence for the possible outcome of intermarriages in reducing the incidence of the SCT.
    BMC Blood Disorders 06/2010; 10:5. DOI:10.1186/1471-2326-10-5
  • A. L. Okwi · W. Byarugaba · A. Parkes · M. Ocaido
    Clinics in Mother and Child Health 01/2010; 7:1-5. DOI:10.4303/cmch/C101947
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the cost benefit of screening for sickle-cell disease among infants at district health centres in Uganda using sickling, solubility tests and the peripheral blood film method. Pilot screening services were established at district health centres. Cost benefit analysis (CBA) was performed in four scenarios: A1 - where there are no sickle-cell screening services at district health centres and all children are referred either to Mulago tertiary referral hospital or A2 - a regional hospital for haemoglobin (Hb) electrophoresis; B1 - when there are screening services at district health centres, only positive samples are taken either to Mulago Hospital or B2 - the regional hospital for confirmation using haemoglobin electrophoresis. Calculations were done in Uganda shillings (USh). Initial operational costs were high for all scenarios but variably reduced in the subsequent years. Scenarios A1 and A2 were very sensitive compared with B1 and B2. Scenario A1 had the highest screening costs in the subsequent years, costing over 62 000 USh per test in both eastern and western Uganda. Scenario B2 was sensitive and cheaper when using the sickling test, but was expensive and insensitive when using the solubility test and more insensitive though cheaper when using the peripheral blood film method. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION: Screening children in Mulago hospital using haemoglobin electrophoresis (A1) was very expensive although it was sensitive. Screening the children at four health centres using the sickling method and confirming positive samples at a regional hospital (B2) was both cheap and sensitive and is therefore recommended.
    South African medical journal = Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir geneeskunde 12/2009; 99(12):887-91. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost benefit of screening for sickle-cell disease among infants at district health centres in Uganda using sickling, solubility tests and the peripheral blood film method. METHODS: Pilot screening services were established at district health centres. Cost benefit analysis (CBA) was performed in four scenarios: A1 – where there are no sickle-cell screening services at district health centres and all children are referred either to Mulago national referral hospital or A2 – a regional hospital for haemoglobin (Hb) electrophoresis; B1 – when there are screening services at district health centres, only positive samples are taken either to Mulago Hospital or B2 – the regional hospital for confirmation using haemoglobin electrophoresis. Calculations were done in Uganda shillings (USh). RESULTS: Initial operational costs were high for all scenarios but variably reduced in the subsequent years. Scenarios A1 and A2 were very sensitive compared with B1 and B2. Scenario A1 had the highest screening costs in the subsequent years, costing over 62 000 USh per test in both eastern and western Uganda. Scenario B2 was sensitive and cheaper when using the sickling test, but was expensive and insensitive when using the solubility test and more insensitive though cheaper when using the peripheral blood film method. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: Screening children in Mulago hospital using haemoglobin electrophoresis (A1) was very expensive although it was sensitive. Screening the children at four health centres using the sickling method and confirming positive samples at a regional hospital (B2) was both cheap and sensitive and is therefore recommended.
    South African medical journal = Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir geneeskunde 12/2009; 99(12):887-891. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The management of sickle cell disease (SCD) has remained insurmountable in developing countries such as Uganda, because most communities are not aware of it. To determine knowledge gaps, attitudes and beliefs of the communities about sickle cell disease in Eastern and Western Uganda. Cross sectional descriptive study. The districts of Sironko and Mbale in Eastern Uganda and Mbarara and Ntungamo in Western Uganda. Households, students and health workers. Household respondents from Eastern Uganda were more aware of SCD than those from Western (p < 0.001), with the majority reporting that they had seen more people with SCD in their communities than those from the West (p < 0.001). Fewer (< 1.9%) believed SCD was due to witch craft. Eight per cent of household respondents in Eastern believed it was a curse from God compared to 2% in the West. Less than 18% of the household respondents knew they could have children with SCD and (< 52%) of health workers knew SCD screening methods. Fewer (< 14%) of the health workers had participated in screening. Less than 20% of the respondents knew their sickle cell status. Respondents from Eastern Uganda were more aware of SCD than those from Western. Minority of the respondents knew their SCD status and few health staff knew how to screen it. There is need to sensitise communities and policy makers about prevention, screening and treatment of SCD.
    East African medical journal 09/2009; 86(9):442-9. DOI:10.4314/eamj.v86i9.54167
  • Kenneth N Mugabi · Anthony Mugisha · Michael Ocaido
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    ABSTRACT: A study was conducted in Nakasongola district to determine socioeconomic factors that influence the use of acaricides on livestock. The information was got through focus group discussions (FGDs) and use of a questionnaire. Questionnaire was administered to one hundred households. Acaricides were used to kill ticks and biting flies which transmit diseases and cause discomfort to livestock. But to a less extent was also done for cosmetic purposes. Most of the farmers were aware of the correct acaricide dilutions as recommended by the manufacturers but they ignored them. But through trial and error came up with their own dilutions, which they said were very cost-effective. Further, they experimented on concoctions of different acaricide mixes and came up with acaricide combinations which were more effective in killing ticks and flies. Veterinarians and acaricide manufacturing companies had called this a malpractice. On the contrary, this should be treated as an innovation by farmers in their endeavour to find a cheaper sustainable method of controlling ticks and flies. Further research should therefore be done on these working "malpractices".
    Tropical Animal Health and Production 07/2009; 42(1):131-6. DOI:10.1007/s11250-009-9396-6 · 0.97 Impact Factor
  • M Ocaido · R T Muwazi · J Asibo Opuda
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    ABSTRACT: A longitudinal study was done to monitor incidence of livestock diseases in ranch and pastoral herds around Lake Mburo National Park, in South-western Uganda with a high level of wildlife (impala and zebra) and livestock (cattle and goats) interactions. East Coast Fever (ECF), abortions, helminthosis and starvation due to drought were major livestock disease problems encountered. ECF was a major disease affecting mainly calves, causing mortality both in ranch (8.5%) and pastoral (8.2%) herds. Meanwhile, drought was a more serious in pastoral than ranch herds (p < 0.05), killing 28.5% and 5.8% of adult female cattle in respective production systems. Other endemic diseases found and controlled by vaccination were FMD, CBPP and blackquarter. In both cattle and goats helminthosis was causing mortalities, 3.3% and 0.8% among calves in pastoral and ranches respectively; and 4.8% and 6.9% among kids and sub-adult goats respectively. Many cases of abortions occurred among pastoral herds. In conclusion, the disease incidence among livestock was the same or relatively low as compared to other areas without wildlife.
    Tropical Animal Health and Production 03/2009; 41(7):1299-308. DOI:10.1007/s11250-009-9315-x · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    B. Owuor · D. Musyimi · M. Ocaido
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    ABSTRACT: An investigation was undertaken to establish the influence of rooting media and application of hormones and length of cutting on survival and rooting of plagiotropic stem cuttings of large sour plum (Ximenia caffra sond) at Botanical garden of the Department of Botany and Horticulture, at Maseno University, Kenya during the year 2006-2007. Cuttings were collected from Kitmikayi and Gembe Hills sacred site in Lake Victoria region in Kenya. Two experiments were established. The first experiment evaluated the effect of three media substrates (Sand (SA), sawdust (Sd), sand: sawdust mixture (Sa/Sd)) and two stem-cutting sizes (single and double node) on components of rooting and eventual rooting of the stem cuttings. The second experiment evaluated the effect of different concentrations of ∝-Naphthallic acetic acid hormone (0, 20, 80,140, and 200 mg/l) and two types of rooting substrates on survival and rooting of plagiotropic stem cuttings. Rooting media, stem cutting size and different concentrations of ∝-NAA hormone had no significant influence on survival, callus formation, formation of root primordia and rooting of the stem cuttings (p > 0.05). Single node cuttings had similar survival (59%), with double node stem cuttings (56%) in sand substrate. The study presents evidence of successful rooting of large sour plum using the two types of substrates with or without hormone treatment. The use of these substrates with single node stem cuttings could facilitate faster domestication of large sour plum in an effort to improve income for poor subsistence farmers in the Lake Victoria basin.
  • M Ocaido · R T Muwazi · J Asibo Opuda
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    ABSTRACT: A longitudinal economic impact study of Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases (TTBDs) in cattle around Lake Mburo National Park (LMNP) was done. Impact was valued using Uganda Shilling (Ug. Shs) (exchange rate of 1USD to Ug. Shs 1,420). The costs for controlling TTBDs was constituting 85.6 +/- 3.2% (pastoral) and 73.8 +/- 4.2% (ranches) to total disease control costs. The main costs were on tick control, constituting 83.1% (ranches) and 87.9% (pastoral). In pastoral herds, the costs were negatively correlated to herd size (r = -0.99). The mean annual cost per cattle for controlling TTBDs for ranch and pastoral herds was similar Ug. Shs 5,900 +/- 545. The mean annual Economic Cost (EC) of TTBDs per cattle was not significantly different (p > 0.05) between pastoral (Ug. Shs 6,700 +/- 580) and ranch herds (Ug. Shs 7,600 +/- 970). The mean annual EC per cattle was negatively correlated (r = -0.99) with herd size in pastoral systems contrary to positive correlation (r = 0.99) observed among the ranches. The major component of EC of TTBDs of 88.2% (pastoral) and 78.6% (ranches) was due to their control. The other component was owed to mortality, which was positively correlated (p < 0.01) to the ranch herd size. The total annual EC of TTBDs around LMNP was Ug. Shs 437,754,600 (USD 308,144).
    Tropical Animal Health and Production 10/2008; 41(5):731-9. DOI:10.1007/s11250-008-9245-z · 0.97 Impact Factor
  • M. Ocaido · L. Siefert · J. Baranga
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    ABSTRACT: A study was performed in and around Lake Mburo National Park (LMNP) to identify common helminths that parasitize both game and livestock. Various techniques including floatation, Baerman and sedimentation tests, faecal culturing and post-mortem were used to identify helminths recovered during the survey. Identification was based on egg, larval and adult helminth developmental stages. Results showed that 22 species of parasitic nematodes, lungworms, ascaris, trematodes and tapeworms occur in both wild game and livestock found in and around the national park. The significance of the findings to helminth cross-infection among game, livestock and man is discussed. On a effectué une étude autour et dans le Parc National du lac Mburo (LMNP) afin d'identifier les helminthes communs qui parasitent le gibier et le bétail. On a utilisé diverses techniques comme les tests de flottation, de Baerman et de sédimentation, la mise en culture des excréments et les analyses post-mortem pour identifier les helminthes découverts au cours de la recherche. L'identification s'est basée sur le stade de l'œuf, et les stades larvaire et adulte du développement des helminthes. Les résultats ont montré qu'il y a 22 espèces de nématodes parasites, des vers des poumons, des ascaris, des trématodes et des ténias qui affectent tant le bétail que le gibier dans et autour du parc national. On discute de la signification de ces découvertes pour l'infection par les helminthes croisée entre bétail, gibier et hommes.
    African Journal of Ecology 04/2004; 42(1):42 - 49. DOI:10.1111/j.0141-6707.2004.00484.x · 1.00 Impact Factor
  • M. Ocaido · C. Dranzoa · P. Cheli
    African Journal of Ecology 01/2004; 41(4):356 - 359. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2028.2003.00483.x · 1.00 Impact Factor
  • O. Bwangamoi · C. Dranzoa · M. Ocaido · G. S Kamatei
    African Journal of Ecology 03/2003; 41(1):111 - 113. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2028.2003.00418.x · 1.00 Impact Factor
  • M. Ocaido · L. Siefert · J. Baranga
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    ABSTRACT: The study was done in Lake Mburo area, Uganda, consisting of Lake Mburo National Park and surrounding ranches. The study involved monitoring changes of output of helminth eggs per gram (e.p.g.) by impala for 12 months. Fresh faecal samples, 178 in total, were collected from the rangeland and subjected to floatation and culture tests. There was a peak faecal e.p.g. output from March to April and from October to November. This period coincided with time of high rainfall and calving peak of impala. There was no faecal e.p.g. observed during the dry spell from June to July.RésuméCette étude fut menée dans la région du Lac Mburo en Uganda, comprenant le Lake Mburo National Park et les ranchs avoisinants. Elle a impliqué la surveillance continue des variations de l’expulsion d’oeufs d’helminthes par gramme (e.p.g.) par les impalas durant 12 mois. Au total, 178 échantillons fécaux frais furent collectés dans la zone d’étude et soumis à des tests de flottation et de culture. On a constaté un pic d’expulsion d’e.p.g. fécaux de mars à avril et d’octobre à novembre. Cette période coïncidait à l’époque des fortes pluies et du pic des mises bas de l’impala. On n’a observé aucune e.p.g. fécale durant la période sèche de juin à juillet.
    African Journal of Ecology 12/2001; 37(3):327 - 333. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2028.1999.00179.x · 1.00 Impact Factor