[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: EDA splice isoforms EDA-A1 and EDA-A2 belong to the TNF ligand family and regulate skin appendage formation by activating NF-kappa B- and JNK- promoted transcription. To analyze their action further, we conditionally expressed the isoforms as tetracycline ('Tet')-regulated transgenes in Tabby (EDA-negative) and wild-type mice. Expression of only the mEDA-A1 transgene had two types of effects during embryogenesis: (1) determinative effects on sweat glands and hair follicles. In Tabby mice, one type of hair follicle ('guard hair') was restored, whereas a second type, the dominant undercoat hair follicle ('zigzag') was not; furthermore, the transgene sharply suppressed zigzag hair formation in wild-type mice, with the overall numbers of back hair follicles remaining the same; and (2) trophic effects on sebaceous and Meibomian glands. Marked hyperplasia resulted from expansion of the sebocyte-producing zone in sebaceous glands, with particularly high expression of the transgene and the replication marker PCNA, and correspondingly high production of sebum. The phenotypic effects of mEDA-A1 on sebaceous glands, but not on hair follicles, were reversed when the gene was repressed in adult animals. The results thus reveal both initiating and trophic isoform-specific effects of the EDA gene, and suggest a possible balance of isoform interactions in skin appendage formation.
Human Molecular Genetics 12/2003; 12(22):2931-40. · 7.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the EDA gene cause anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA), with lesions in skin appendage formation. To begin to analyze EDA pathways, we have used expression profiling on 15,000-gene mouse cDNA microarrays, comparing adult mouse skin from wild-type, EDA-defective (Tabby) mice, and Tabby mice supplemented with the EDA-A1 isoform, which is sufficient to rescue multiple Tabby phenotypes. Given the sensitivity of the current microarray system, 8500 genes (60%) were estimated to be expressed, including transcription factors and growth-regulatory genes that had not previously been identified in skin; but only 24 (0.16%), one-third of them novel, showed significant differences between wild type and Tabby. An additional eight genes not included in the 15,000 gene set were shown to have expression differences by real-time RT-PCR. Sixteen of 32 affected genes were restored significantly toward wild-type levels in EDA-A1 transgenic Tabby mice. Significant up-regulation in Tabby skin was observed for several dermal matrix genes, including Col1a1, Col1a2, Col3a1 and SPARC: In contrast, down-regulation occurred for the NEMO/NF-kappa B pathway, already implicated in skin appendage formation, and even more markedly for a second pathway, JNK/c-jun/c-fos and their target genes, that has not previously been clearly associated with skin development. These data are consistent with the regulation of the NF-kappa B pathway by EDA, and support its involvement in the regulation of the JNK pathway as well.
Human Molecular Genetics 08/2002; 11(15):1763-73. · 7.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lesions in the anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA) gene cause the recessive human genetic disorder X-linked anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, which is characterized by the poor development of ectoderm-derived structures. Ectodysplasin-A, the protein encoded by the EDA gene, is a member of the tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily that forms a collagen triple helix, suggesting functions in signal transduction and cell adhesion. In an effort to elucidate the function of EDA in pathways regulating ectodermal development, we have analyzed promoter elements of the gene. We show here that a binding site for the lymphocyte enhancer factor 1 (Lef-1) transcription factor is active. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays, Lef-1 specifically bound to its site in the EDA promoter. Over-expression of both Lef-1 and beta-catenin significantly increased EDA transcription in co-transfection studies. In addition, indirect stabilization of endogenous beta-catenin stimulated EDA transcription 4- to 13-fold. This is the first direct evidence of a relationship between EDA and the Wnt pathway. We have also investigated whether EDA might function in a feedback loop to modulate Wnt signaling. Over-expression of EDA neither stimulated basal transcription of Wnt-dependent genes, nor inhibited Wnt-dependent activation of transcription. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Wnt signaling does control EDA gene expression, but ectodysplasin-A does not feedback on the Wnt pathway.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the human ectodysplasin-A (EDA) are responsible for the most common form of the ectodermal dysplasia and the defective orthologous gene in mice produces the tabby phenotype, suggesting its vital role in the development of hair, sweat glands and teeth. Among several EDA splice isoforms, the most common and the longest EDA splice isoforms, EDA-A1 and EDA-A2, differing by only two amino acids, activate NF-kappaB-promoted transcription by binding to distinct receptors, EDAR and XEDAR. The extent to which any particular isoform is sufficient for the formation of hair, sweat glands or teeth has remained unclear. Here we report that transgenic expression of the mouse EDA-A1 isoform in tabby (EDA-less) males rescued development of several skin appendages. The transgenic tabby mice showed almost complete restoration of hair growth, dermal ridges, sweat glands and molars. The number of hair follicles in the transgenic mice is the same as in wild-type; though the development of follicles and associated glands varies from indistinguishable from wild-type to smaller and/or only partially formed. These results suggest that the other EDA isoforms may not be absolutely required for skin appendage formation, but consistent with distinctive temporal and spatial expression of the EDA-A2 isoform, are likely required for appropriate timing and completeness of development. Our data provide the first direct physiological evidence that EDA-A1 is a key regulator of hair follicle and sweat gland initiation; its soluble ligand form could aid in deriving therapeutic reagents for conditions affecting hair and sweat gland formation.
Human Molecular Genetics 01/2002; 10(26):2973-81. · 7.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA) is a disorder characterized by poor development of hair, teeth, and sweat glands, and results from lesions in the X-linked EDA gene. We have cloned a 1.6-kilobase 5'-flanking region of the human EDA gene and used it to analyze features of transcriptional regulation. Primer extension analysis located a single transcription initiation site 264 base pairs (bp) upstream of the translation start site. When the intact cloned fragment or truncated derivatives were placed upstream of a reporter luciferase gene and transfected into a series of cultured cells, expression comparable with that conferred by an SV40 promoter-enhancer was observed. The region lacks a TATA box sequence, and basal transcription from the unique start site is dependent on two binding sites for the Sp1 transcription factor. One site lies 38 bp 5' to the transcription start site, in a 71-bp sequence that is sufficient to support up to 35% of maximal transcription. The functional importance of the Sp1 sites was demonstrated when cotransfection of an Sp1 expression vector transactivated the EDA promoter in the SL2 Drosophila cell line that otherwise lacks endogenous Sp1. Also, both Sp1 binding sites were active in footprinting and gel shift assays in the presence of either crude HeLa cell nuclear extract or purified Sp1 and lost activity when the binding sites were mutated. A second region involved in positive control was localized to a 40-bp sequence between -673 and -633 bp. This region activated an SV40 minimal promoter 4- to 5-fold in an orientation-independent manner and is thus inferred to contain an enhancer region.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/1999; 274(37):26477-84. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The roles of the nitrogen fixation regulatory proteins NifA, FixK1, and FixK2 in the symbiotic regulation of hydrogenase structural gene expression in Bradyrhizobium japonicum have been investigated. Bacteroids from FixJ and FixK2 mutants have little or no hydrogenase activity, and extracts from these mutant bacteroids contain no hydrogenase protein. Bacteroids from a FixK1 mutant exhibit wild-type levels of hydrogenase activity. In beta-galactosidase transcriptional assays with NifA and FixK2 expression plasmids, the FixK2 protein induces transcription from the hup promoter to levels similar to those induced by HoxA, the transcriptional activator of free-living hydrogenase expression. The NifA protein does not activate transcription at the hydrogenase promoter. Therefore, FixK2 is involved in the transcriptional activation of symbiotic hydrogenase expression. By using beta-galactosidase transcriptional fusion constructs containing successive truncations of the hup promoter, the region of the hup promoter required for regulation by FixK2 was determined to be between 29 and 44 bp upstream of the transcription start site.
Journal of Bacteriology 07/1998; 180(12):3253-6. · 3.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In-frame deletion mutagenesis was used to study the roles of two Bradyrhizobium japonicum proteins, HoxX and HoxA, in hydrogenase biosynthesis; based on their sequences, these proteins were previously proposed to be sensor and regulator proteins, respectively, of a two-component regulatory system necessary for hydrogenase transcription. Deletion of the hoxX gene resulted in a strain that expressed only 30 to 40% of wild-type hydrogenase activity. The inactive unprocessed form of the hydrogenase large subunit accumulated in this strain, indicating a role for HoxX in posttranslational processing of the hydrogenase enzyme but not in transcriptional regulation. Strains containing a deletion of the hoxA gene or a double mutation (hoxX and hoxA) did not exhibit any hydrogenase activity under free-living conditions, and extracts from these strains were inactive in gel retardation assays with a 158-bp fragment of the DNA region upstream of the hupSL operon. However, bacteroids from root nodules formed by all three mutant types (hoxX, hoxA, and hoxX hoxA) exhibited hydrogenase activity comparable to that of wild-type bacteroids. Bacteroid extracts from all of these strains, including the wild type, failed to cause a shift of the hydrogenase upstream region used in our assay. It was shown that HoxA is a DNA-binding transcriptional activator of hydrogenase structural gene expression under free-living conditions but not under symbiotic conditions. Although symbiotic hydrogenase expression is still sigma54 dependent, a transcriptional activator other than HoxA functions presumably upstream of the HoxA binding site.
Journal of Bacteriology 07/1997; 179(11):3676-82. · 3.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The roles of the nitrogen fixation regulatory proteins NifA, FixK1, and FixK2 in the symbiotic regulation of hydrogenase structural gene expression in Bradyrhizobium japonicum have been investigated. Bacteroids from FixJ and FixK2 mutants have little or no hydrogenase activity, and extracts from these mutant bacteroids contain no hydrogenase protein. Bacteroids from a FixK1 mutant exhibit wild-type levels of hydrogenase activity. In b-galactosidase transcriptional assays with NifA and FixK2 expression plasmids, the FixK2 protein induces transcription from the hup promoter to levels similar to those induced by HoxA, the transcriptional activator of free-living hydrogenase expression. The NifA protein does not activate transcription at the hydrogenase promoter. Therefore, FixK2 is involved in the transcriptional activation of symbiotic hydrogenase expression. By using b-galactosidase transcriptional fusion constructs containing successive truncations of the hup promoter, the region of the hup promoter required for regulation by FixK2 was determined to be between 29 and 44 bp upstream of the transcription start site. The slow-growing symbiont of the soybean plant, Bradyrhi- zobium japonicum, expresses a hydrogen uptake hydrogenase that oxidizes hydrogen under both free-living and symbiotic conditions. In the free-living state, the expression of the NiFe hydrogenase is regulated at the transcriptional level by hydro- gen, oxygen, and nickel (21). These three signals exert their effects within a 50-bp region of DNA located between 99 and 149 bp upstream of the transcription start site of the hydroge- nase structural genes (22). In addition, the hydrogenase pro- moter is s 54 dependent and requires integration host factor for full induction (5). The hoxA gene (32) is located approximately 12 kb down- stream of the hydrogenase structural genes, in a region of the hydrogenase gene cluster previously shown to be necessary for free-living hydrogenase activity (23). The hoxA gene encodes a protein with extensive homology to transcriptional activators of hydrogenase expression in several other organisms, includ- ing HoxA in Alcaligenes eutrophus (12), HupR1 in Rhodobacter capsulatus (30), and HydG in Escherichia coli (31), all of which are members of the NtrC-like family of response regulators (17). Subsequent studies of the role of the HoxA protein in the biosynthesis of hydrogenase by our group (11) and another (33) have confirmed that HoxA is a transcriptional activator of hydrogenase expression under free-living, microaerobic condi- tions. Its cognate sensor protein is presently unknown. How- ever, bacteroids from nodules formed by B. japonicum HoxA mutants exhibit wild-type levels of hydrogenase activity and extracts from Hup 1 bacteroids used in gel retardation assays