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Publications (11)38.34 Total impact

  • J M Anderson, D J Goodchild, N K Boardman
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 01/1974; 325(3):573-85. · 4.66 Impact Factor
  • Jan M. Anderson, D.J. Goodchild, N.K. Boardman
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    ABSTRACT: Chloroplasts were isolated from leaves of three species of tropical rainforest plants, Alocasia macrorrhiza, Cordyline rubra and Lomandra longifolia; these species are representative of extreme “shade” plants. It was found that shade plant chloroplasts contained 4–5 times more chlorophyll than spinach chloroplasts. Their chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b ratio was 2.3 compared with 2.8 for spinach. Electron micrographs of leaf sections showed that the shade plant chloroplasts contained very large grana stacks. The total length of partitions relative to the total length of stroma lamellae was much higher in Alocasia than in spinach chloroplasts. Freeze-etching of isolated chloroplasts revealed both the small and large particles found in spinach chloroplasts.Despite their increased chlorophyll content, low chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b ratio, and large grana, the shade plant chloroplasts were fragmented with digitonin to yield small fragments (D-144) highly enriched in Photosystem I, and large fragments (D-10) enriched in Photosystem II. The degree of fragmentation of the shade plant chloroplasts was remarkably similar to that of spinach chloroplasts, except that the subchloroplast fragments from the shade plants had lower chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b ratios than the corresponding fragments from spinach. The D-10 fragments from the shade plants had chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b ratios of 1.78-2.00 and the D-144 fragments ratios of 3.54–4.07. We conclude that Photosystems I and II of the shade plants have lower proportions of chlorophyll a to chlorophyll b than the corresponding photosystems of spinach. The lower chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b ratio of shade plant chloroplasts is not due to a significant increase in the ratio of Photosystem II to Photosystem I in these chloroplasts.The extent of grana formation in higher plant chloroplasts appears to be related to the total chlorophyll content of the chloroplast. Grana formation may simply be an means of achieving a higher density of light-harvesting assemblies and hence a more efficient collection of light quanta.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Bioenergetics. 12/1973;
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    H R Highkin, N K Boardman, D J Goodchild
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    ABSTRACT: A chlorophyll-deficient mutant of pea (Pisum sativum) was found as a spontaneous mutation of the variety Greenfeast. Total chlorophyll of the mutant leaves was about one-half that of normal pea leaves per mg dry weight, and the ratio of chl a:chl b ranged from 10 to 18, compared with 3 for normal pea. In each generation the mutant plants gave rise to normal and mutant plants and lethal plants with yellow leaves.For a normal pea plant, CO(2) uptake was saturated at about 60,000 lux, whereas with mutant leaves, the rate of CO(2) uptake was still increasing at 113,000 lux. At 113,000 lux the mutant and normal leaves showed similar rates of CO(2) fixation per unit area of leaf surface, but on a chlorophyll basis the mutant leaves were twice as active. Hill reaction measurements on isolated chloroplasts also showed that the mutant chloroplasts were saturated at higher intensities than the normal, and that the activity of the mutant was at least double that of the normal on a chlorophyll basis.It is suggested that the photosynthetic units of the mutant chloroplasts contain about half the number of chlorophyll molecules as compared to the normal photosynthetic units.Electron microscopy of leaf sections of normal and mutant leaves showed that the mutant chloroplasts contain fewer lamellae per chloroplast and fewer lamellae per granum. The lethal chloroplasts, which were virtually devoid of chlorophyll, were characterized by an absence of grana.
    Plant physiology 10/1969; 44(9):1310-20. · 6.56 Impact Factor
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    C R Slack, M D Hatch, D J Goodchild
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    ABSTRACT: 1. Mesophyll and parenchyma-sheath chloroplasts of maize leaves were separated by density fractionation in non-aqueous media. 2. An investigation of the distribution of photosynthetic enzymes indicated that the mesophyll chloroplasts probably contain the entire leaf complement of pyruvate,P(i) dikinase, NADP-specific malate dehydrogenase, glycerate kinase and nitrite reductase and most of the adenylate kinase and pyrophosphatase. The fractionation pattern of phosphopyruvate carboxylase suggested that this enzyme may be associated with the bounding membrane of mesophyll chloroplasts. 3. Ribulose diphosphate carboxylase, ribose phosphate isomerase, phosphoribulokinase, fructose diphosphate aldolase, alkaline fructose diphosphatase and NADP-specific ;malic' enzyme appear to be wholly localized in the parenchyma-sheath chloroplasts. Phosphoglycerate kinase and NADP-specific glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase, on the other hand, are distributed approximately equally between the two types of chloroplast. 4. After exposure of illuminated leaves to (14)CO(2) for 25sec., labelled malate, aspartate and 3-phosphoglycerate had similar fractionation patterns, and a large proportion of each was isolated with mesophyll chloroplasts. Labelled fructose phosphates and ribulose phosphates were mainly isolated in fractions containing parenchyma-sheath chloroplasts, and dihydroxyacetone phosphate had a fractionation pattern intermediate between those of C(4) dicarboxylic acids and sugar phosphates. 6. These results indicate that the mesophyll and parenchyma-sheath chloroplasts have a co-operative function in the operation of the C(4)-dicarboxylic acid pathway. Possible routes for the transfer of carbon from C(4) dicarboxylic acids to sugars are discussed.
    Biochemical Journal 10/1969; 114(3):489-98. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    A Millerd, D J Goodchild, D Spencer
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    ABSTRACT: In the Zea mays L. mutant M11 grown in the dark at 15 degrees , the ultrastructure of the etioplast is abnormal. The pigment content of the etioplasts is reduced but the in vivo absorption characteristics suggest that the normal protochlorophyll (ide)-holochrome is present. The lowered synthetic ability of the etioplasts is not primarily due to a reduced complement of plastid ribosomes. The plastids of mutant M11 grown in the light at 15 degrees contain little pigment, are markedly deficient in ribosomes and their ultrastructure is abnormal. In mutant M11 grown at 15 degrees , an extreme sensitivity of the plastid membranes to light was observed.
    Plant physiology 05/1969; 44(4):567-83. · 6.56 Impact Factor
  • D J Goodchild, H R Highkin, N K Boardman
    Experimental Cell Research 11/1966; 43(3):684-8. · 3.56 Impact Factor
  • S Craig, DJ Goodchild, AR Hardham
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    ABSTRACT: Structural changes in pea cotyledons during development were studied using light and electron microscopy. Changes in the vacuolar system and cytoplasm of cotyledon parenchyma cells, during the period of storage protein deposition, are reported. Eight days after flowering, the parenchyma cells each contain one or two large vacuoles that are replaced by progressively smaller vacuoles during the next 10 days of development. Stainable material that can be histochemically identified as protein appears on the inner surface of the vacuole tonoplast 8 days after flowering. These vacuoles become smaller and more frequent during development and the amount of proteinaceous material within each vacuole increases until, at days 16-20 after flowering, they become densely packed with protein and are described as protein bodies. At day 8, the vacuole(s) have an average diameter of 39 µm, an average volume of 41 000 µm³ , representing 75 % of the cell volume, and a surface area of 5500 µm². By day 20, the average protein body diameter has fallen to 1 µm. There are, however, approx. 175 000 such protein bodies per cell, occupying 91 500 µm³ or approx. 20 % of the cell volume, and whose total surface area is 550 000 µm². The surface to volume ratlo of the vacuole/protein bodies Increases 55 times between days 8 and 20. Apart from this increase in surface area available for possible entry of protein, no mechanism for such entry can be suggested from our nlicrographs.
    Functional Plant Biology 6(1):81-98. · 2.47 Impact Factor
  • DJ Goodchild, S Craig
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    ABSTRACT: The pea storage proteins legumin and vicilin have previously been shown to be deposited in the vacuoles of cells of young developing cotyledons. By electron microscopy, the appearance of vacuole contents, and in particular of the peripheral protein deposits, are known to vary even in controlled and reproducible conditions of plant growth. This observation suggests an influence of specimen preparation on appearance. Different fixative solutions used on developing pea-seed cotyledons affected the appearance of the cytoplasm and its contents only slightly. The appearance of vacuole contents was greatly modified by the type of buffer used as a fixative vehicle and by osmotic conditions induced by added sucrose, and less by the primary fixative used. From a comparison with living protoplasts from cotyledon cells, it was concluded that the non-membrane-bound peripheral protein deposits are not artefacts of preparation. It is suggested that sucrose may play a role in the transition of vacuoles to protein bodies.
    Functional Plant Biology 9(6):689-704. · 2.47 Impact Factor
  • S Craig, A Millerd, DJ Goodchild
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    ABSTRACT: The site of sequestration of the storage proteins legumin and vicilin during development of cotyledons from pea (Pisum sativum L.) has been determined using improved immunocytochemical techniques. Antibodies to legumin and vicilin were made monospecific by affinity chromatography. They were allowed to react on sections of glycol methacrylate-embedded cotyledon tissue and detected by indirect immunocytochemical localization using rhodamine-labelled antibodies. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique was adapted to verify antibody specificity at a sensitivity up to 300 times greater than that of immunodiffusion. Legumin and vicilin 4 are localized in small peripheral deposits within large vacuoles as early as day 8 after flowering. As the vacuoles fragment during development the storage proteins continue to be localized in the vacuolar deposits until, at day 16, they entirely fill vacuoles, now termed protein bodies. Thereafter, the protein bodies become more densely packed and retain a similar form from day 22 to maturity. Wherever the same vacuolar deposit of protein body could be observed in adjacent sections, antilegumin and antivicilin 4 labelled both deposits, clearly indicating that both storage proteins are sequestered into the same area of protein.
    Functional Plant Biology 7(3):339-351. · 2.47 Impact Factor
  • S Craig, DJ Goodchild, C Miller
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    ABSTRACT: The three-dimensional structure of vacuoles and protein bodies seen in developing cotyledons from pea (Pisum sativum L.) have been reconstructed from serial sections. At days 12 and 15 after flowering, serial sections 1 µm thick of epoxy-embedded seed tissue were used to determine vacuole morphology while, at day 20, serial sections 0.25 µm thick were examined by electron microscopy to ascertain protein body morphology. At day 12 there are one or two large vacuoles having extremely complex protrusions emanating from a larger central vacuolar volume. This gives rise to up to 20 apparently discrete vacuole profiles in a given section through a cell. By day 15, there are many smaller, approximately spherical, vacuoles and also some that are more complex. At day 20 most protein bodies are discrete, spherical structures, although a few irregularly shaped bodies are seen. The results support the concept of a large highly convoluted central vacuole fragmenting to give rise to the protein bodies seen towards seed maturity.
    Functional Plant Biology 7(3):329-337. · 2.47 Impact Factor
  • JNA Lott, PJ Randall, DJ Goodchild, S Craig
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    ABSTRACT: In many species globoid crystals in protein bodies of seeds are very common while in other species they are rarely observed. A review of literature suggested that the balance between divalent (Mg2+ and Ca2+) and monovalent (K+) cations may be important in determining whether or not globoid crystals will form. To test this hypothesis, experiments were carried out to add Mg and Ca, or Ca alone, to pods developing on K-deficient pea plants. While it was possible to cause a reduction in K concentration and increases in Mg and Ca concentrations, any changes to the normal mineral storage pattern in pea cotyledons were remarkably small. In some treatments, statistically significant increases in the ratio (Mg + Ca)/K were obtained and the sample with the greatest increase was examined in detail by electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. In this sample globoid crystals were common, in contrast to their normally rare occurrence in pea cotyledonary tissue.
    Functional Plant Biology 12(4):341-353. · 2.47 Impact Factor