María José Delgado-Cortés

Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Andalusia, Spain

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Publications (6)13.86 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Abstract This review aims to point out that chronic stress is able to accelerate the appearance of Alzheimer's disease (AD), proposing the former as a risk factor for the latter. Firstly, in the introduction we describe some human epidemiological studies pointing out the possibility that chronic stress could increase the incidence, or the rate of appearance of AD. Afterwards, we try to justify these epidemiological results with some experimental data. We have reviewed the experiments studying the effect of various stressors on different features in AD animal models. Moreover, we also point out the data obtained on the effect of chronic stress on some processes that are known to be involved in AD, such as inflammation and glucose metabolism. Later, we relate some of the processes known to be involved in aging and AD, such as accumulation of β-amyloid, TAU hyperphosphorylation, oxidative stress and impairement of mitochondrial function, emphasizing how they are affected by chronic stress/glucocorticoids and comparing with the description made for these processes in AD. All these data support the idea that chronic stress could be considered a risk factor for AD.
    Reviews in the neurosciences 08/2014; · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence supports the role of inflammation in the development of neurodegenerative diseases. In this work, we are interested in inflammation as a risk factor by itself and not only as a factor contributing to neurodegeneration. We tested the influence of a mild to moderate peripheral inflammation (injection of carrageenan into the paws of rats) on the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in an animal model based on the intranigral injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent inflammatory agent. Overall, the treatment with carrageenan increased the effect of the intranigral injection of LPS on the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the SN along with all the other parameters studied, including: serum levels of the inflammatory markers TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and C-reactive protein; activation of microglia, expression of proinflammatory cytokines, the adhesion molecule ICAM and the enzyme iNOS, loss of astrocytes and damage to the blood brain barrier (BBB). The possible implication of BBB rupture in the increased loss of dopaminergic neurons has been studied using another Parkinson's disease animal model based on the intraperitoneal injection of rotenone. In this experiment, loss of dopaminergic neurons was also strengthened by carrageenan, without affecting the BBB. In conclusion, our data show that a mild to moderate peripheral inflammation can exacerbate the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons caused by a harmful stimulus.
    NeuroToxicology 02/2012; 33(3):347-60. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed an animal model of degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, the neuronal system involved in Parkinson's disease (PD). The implication of neuroinflammation on this disease was originally established in 1988, when the presence of activated microglia in the substantia nigra (SN) of parkinsonians was reported by McGeer et al. Neuroinflammation could be involved in the progression of the disease or even has more direct implications. We injected 2 μg of the potent proinflammatory compound lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in different areas of the CNS, finding that SN displayed the highest inflammatory response and that dopaminergic (body) neurons showed a special and specific sensitivity to this process with the induction of selective dopaminergic degeneration. Neurodegeneration is induced by inflammation since it is prevented by anti-inflammatory compounds. The special sensitivity of dopaminergic neurons seems to be related to the endogenous dopaminergic content, since it is overcome by dopamine depletion. Compounds that activate microglia or induce inflammation have similar effects to LPS. This model suggest that inflammation is an important component of the degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system, probably also in PD. Anti-inflammatory treatments could be useful to prevent or slow down the rate of dopaminergic degeneration in this disease.
    ISRN neurology. 01/2011; 2011:476158.
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammatory processes described in Parkinson's disease (PD) and its animal models appear to be important in the progression of the pathogenesis, or even a triggering factor. Here we review that peripheral inflammation enhances the degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system induced by different insults; different peripheral inflammations have been used, such as IL-1β and the ulcerative colitis model, as well as insults to the dopaminergic system such as 6-hydroxydopamine or lipopolysaccharide. In all cases, an increased loss of dopaminergic neurons was described; inflammation in the substantia nigra increased, displaying a great activation of microglia along with an increase in the production of cytokines such as IL-1β and TNF-α. Increased permeability or disruption of the BBB, with overexpression of the ICAM-1 adhesion molecule and infiltration of circulating monocytes into the substantia nigra, is also involved, since the depletion of circulating monocytes prevents the effects of peripheral inflammation. Data are reviewed in relation to epidemiological studies of PD.
    Parkinson's disease. 01/2011; 2011:393769.
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    ABSTRACT: Peripheral inflammation could play a role in the origin and development of certain neurodegenerative disorders. To ascertain this possibility, a model of dopaminergic neurodegeneration based on the injection of the inflammatory agent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) within the substantia nigra was assayed in rats with ulcerative colitis (UC) induced by the ingestion of dextran sulphate sodium. We found an increase in the levels of inflammatory markers from serum (tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and the acute phase protein C-reactive protein) and substantia nigra (tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, microglial and astroglial populations) of rats with UC, as well as an alteration of the blood-brain barrier permeability and the loss of dopaminergic neurons. UC reinforced the inflammatory and deleterious effects of LPS. On the contrary, clodronate encapsulated in liposomes (ClodLip), which depletes peripheral macrophages, ameliorated the effect of LPS and UC. Peripheral inflammation might represent a risk factor in the development of Parkinson's disease.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 09/2010; 114(6):1687-700. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anti-inflammatory strategies have attracted much interest for their potential to prevent further deterioration of Parkinson's disease. Recent experimental and clinical evidence indicate that statins - extensively used in medical practice as effective lipid-lowering agents - have also anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated the influence of simvastatin on the degenerative process of the dopaminergic neurons of the rat following intranigral injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent inductor of inflammation that we have previously used as an animal model of Parkinson's disease. We evaluated TH positive neurons, astroglial, and microglial populations and found that simvastatin prevented the inflammatory processes, as the induction of interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and iNOS and the consequent dopaminergic degeneration induced by LPS. Moreover, simvastatin produced the activation of the neurotrophic factor BDNF, along with the prevention of the oxidative damage to proteins. Moreover, it also prevents the main changes produced by LPS on different mitogen-activated protein kinases, featured as increases of P-c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase, P-extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p-38, and P-glycogen synthase kinase and the decrease of the promotion of cell survival signals such as cAMP response element-binding protein and Akt. Our results suggest that statins could delay the progression of dopaminergic degeneration in disorders involving inflammatory processes.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 05/2008; 105(2):445-59. · 3.97 Impact Factor