Mary G Leonard

University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States

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Publications (6)13.48 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Endothelin (ET) plays an important role in many physiological functions. It has been demonstrated that endogenous ET-1 concentration in the central nervous system (CNS) changes with age; however the ontogeny of ETA and ETB receptors in the brain, heart, and kidneys during postnatal development has not been studied. Methods: Brains, hearts and kidneys of rats at postnatal days 1, 7, 14 and 28 were evaluated for the expression of ETA and ETB receptors via Western blot. ETB receptors within the developing brain were further accessed via immunofluorescence. Results: The mean organ and body weights increased proportionally with advancing age demonstrating normal growth. The expression of ETA receptors in the brain, heart, and kidneys and ETB receptor expression in the heart and kidneys was similar in these rats at postnatal ages 1, 7, 14 and 28days. However, brain ETB receptor expression significantly (P<0.001) decreased by 72% on day 28 compared to the levels on postnatal day 1. Upon immunofluorescent analysis, the intensity of ETB staining in the cerebral cortex and subventricular zones of the developing rat brain decreased significantly from day 1 to day 7 (P<0.001) and from day 7 to day 14 (P<0.0001). There was no further decrease in ETB intensity noted in the cerebral cortex and subventricular zones between day 14 and day 28 of postnatal age. The intensity of ETB receptor staining within the cerebrovasculature, on the other hand, increased significantly (P<0.05) from days 1 and 7 to day 14. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that expression of ETA receptors does not change with postnatal development. On the other hand ETB receptors in the cerebral cortex and subventricular zones of the brain decrease with age, while ETB receptors in the cerebrovasculature increase with age, implicating ETB receptor involvement in the structural maturity and development of the CNS.
    Brain & development 05/2014; · 1.74 Impact Factor
  • Mary G Leonard, Anil Gulati
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    ABSTRACT: Endothelin B receptor agonist, IRL-1620, has been shown in previous studies, conducted in our lab, to provide significant neuroprotection at both 24 hours and 1 week following permanent cerebral ischemia. It is possible that IRL-1620 may be neuroprotective due to angiogenesis and neurogenesis. However, the effect of IRL-1620 on neurovascular remodeling following cerebral ischemia has not been established. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of IRL-1620 [Suc-[Glu9,Ala11,15]-Endothelin-1(8-12)] on astrocytes, neurons, and vascular endothelial cells after induction of cerebral ischemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats undergoing permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) received three intravenous injections of either vehicle or IRL-1620 at 2, 4, and 6 hours post occlusion. At 24 hours post occlusion, IRL-1620 treatment preserved neuronal numbers in the cortex, striatum and subventricular zone (SVZ) of the ischemic rat brain, while simultaneously enhancing the number of blood vessels labeled with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) compared to vehicle treatment. By 1 week following MCAO, VEGF-positive vessels/30µm brain slice in the IRL-1620 group numbered 11.33±2.13 versus 4.19±0.79 in the vehicle group (P<0.01). Additionally, animals receiving IRL-1620 displayed increased number of proliferating cells (P<0.0001) and cells positively staining for nerve growth factor (NGF; P<0.0001) in the infarcted brain. VEGF and NGF protein expression significantly increased at 1 week post MCAO in the infarcted hemisphere of IRL-1620 treated rats as compared to sham (P<0.01). Pretreatment with BQ788 blocked the effects of IRL-1620, thus confirming the role of ETB receptors in the neurovascular remodeling actions of IRL-1620. Results of the present study indicate that IRL-1620, administered on the day of infarct, is neuroprotective and enhances angiogenic and neurogenic remodeling following cerebral ischemia.
    Brain research 07/2013; · 2.46 Impact Factor
  • Mary G Leonard, Seema Briyal, Anil Gulati
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    ABSTRACT: We have earlier shown that stimulation of endothelin B receptors by IRL-1620 provides significant neuroprotection at 24h following cerebral ischemia. However, the effect of IRL-1620 is not known in the subacute phase of cerebral ischemia, where development of cerebral edema further contributes towards brain damage. This study was designed to determine the effect of IRL-1620 on neurological functions, infarct volume, oxidative stress, and endothelin receptors following permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion for 7 days. Rats received three intravenous injections of either vehicle or IRL-1620 [Suc-[Glu9,Ala11,15]-Endothelin-1(8-12)] at 2, 4, and 6h post occlusion. Treatment with IRL-1620 reduced infarct volume (54.06 ± 14.12 mm(3) vs. 177.06 ± 13.21 mm(3)), prevented cerebral edema and significantly improved all neurological and motor function parameters when compared to the vehicle-treated group. Vehicle-treated middle cerebral artery occluded rats demonstrated high levels of malondialdehyde and low levels of reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase; these effects were reversed in IRL-1620 treated rats. No change in expression of endothelin A receptor was observed 7 days after induction of cerebral ischemia in vehicle or IRL-1620 treated rats. Rats receiving IRL-1620 demonstrated an upregulation of endothelin B receptor only in the infarcted hemisphere 7 days following occlusion. All effects of IRL-1620 were blocked by endothelin B receptor antagonist, BQ788. Results of the present study demonstrate that IRL-1620, administered on day 1, provides significant neuroprotection till 7 days after the induction of cerebral ischemia in rats. Selective endothelin B receptor activation may prove to be a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of cerebral ischemia.
    Brain research 05/2012; 1464:14-23. · 2.46 Impact Factor
  • M. Leonard, S. Briyal, A. Gulati
    Critical Care Medicine. 01/2012; 40(12):U59-U59.
  • Mary G Leonard, Seema Briyal, Anil Gulati
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    ABSTRACT: Endothelin and its receptors have long been considered therapeutic targets in the treatment of ischemic stroke. Recent studies indicate that ET(B) receptors may provide both vasodilatation and neuroprotection. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of selectively activating the ET(B) receptors following permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. IRL-1620 [Suc-[Glu9,Ala11,15]-Endothelin-1(8-12)], a highly selective ET(B) agonist, was used alone and in conjunction with BQ788, an ET(B) antagonist, to determine the role of ET(B) receptors in cerebral ischemia. Rats were assessed for neurological deficit and motor function, and their brains were evaluated to determine infarct area, oxidative stress parameters, and ET receptor protein levels. Animals treated with IRL-1620 showed significant improvement in all neurological and motor function tests when compared with both vehicle-treated and BQ788-treated middle cerebral artery occluded groups. In addition, there was a significant decrease in infarct volume 24h after occlusion in animals treated with IRL-1620 (24.47±4.37mm(3)) versus the vehicle-treated group (153.23±32.18mm(3)). Blockade of ET(B) receptors by BQ788 followed by either vehicle or IRL-1620 treatment resulted in infarct volumes similar to those of rats treated with vehicle alone (163.51±25.41 and 139.21±15.20mm(3), respectively). Lipid peroxidation, as measured by malondialdehyde, increased and antioxidants (superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione) decreased following infarct. Treatment with IRL-1620 reversed these effects, indicating that ET(B) receptor activation reduces oxidative stress injury following ischemic stroke. Animals pretreated with BQ788 showed similar oxidative stress damage as those in the vehicle-treated group. No significant difference was observed in ET(B) receptor levels in any of the groups. The present study demonstrates that ET(B) receptor activation may be a novel neuroprotective therapy in the treatment of focal ischemic stroke.
    Brain research 09/2011; 1420:48-58. · 2.46 Impact Factor
  • Mary G Leonard, Anil Gulati
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    ABSTRACT: IRL-1620, a highly selective ET(B) receptor agonist, is presently in a phase I clinical trial (NCT00613691) in the United States for patients with recurrent or progressive carcinoma. The effect of acute repeated administration of IRL-1620 on the development of tachyphylaxis to changes in blood pressure, heart rate and blood flow (renal and cerebral) has not been studied. The present studies were conducted in urethane anesthetized rats to determine the cardiovascular effects of acute repeated intravenous administration of IRL-1620. In order to determine the tachyphylactic effect, each dose of IRL-1620 was administered at 0, 60, and 120min. It was found that IRL-1620 did not significantly affect heart rate. IRL-1620 produced a transient fall in blood pressure. A fall in mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 35.47% with 1.6microg/kg, 38.87% with 5.0microg/kg and 28.04% with 15.0microg/kg dose of IRL-1620 was observed. Repeated administration of a low dose (1.6microg/kg, i.v.) of IRL-1620 produced a fall in MAP but no tachyphylaxis was observed. However, repeated administration of IRL-1620 (5.0microg/kg, i.v.) produced a fall in MAP of 40.12%, 29.15%, and 21.61% with the first, second and third injections, respectively. IRL-1620 produced a consistent decrease in renal blood flow and increase in cerebral blood flow without any evidence of tachyphylaxis. Pretreatment with ET(A) antagonist BMS187824 (5mg/kg, i.v.), followed by three doses of 5microg/kg IRL-1620 at 60min intervals eliminated the development of tachyphylaxis to the transient hypotension, confirming the involvement of the ET(A) receptor in tachyphylactic development. The findings indicate development of tachyphylaxis to IRL-1620 only to the fall in blood pressure when given repeatedly at mid-high doses, while the decrease in renal and increase in cerebral blood flow were not affected with regards to tachyphylactic development.
    Pharmacological Research 09/2009; 60(5):402-10. · 4.35 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

17 Citations
13.48 Total Impact Points


  • 2013
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2009
    • Midwestern University
      Glendale, Arizona, United States