Marwa Farag

University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada

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Publications (7)5.62 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This paper examines factors associated with dental care spending in Canada employing through three models; the first model estimates the income elasticity of demand for dental care and the other two models estimate the share of total household income spent on dental care. The income elasticity of Canadian households in 2009 with respect to out-of-pocket dental care spending was 0.146 (p-value<0.001). The lowest income quintile had the highest odds for spending $0 on dental care, which could indicate not using dental care or having full coverage. However, when these households did spend on dental care, they were most likely to have a higher burden of dental expenditure as a share of household income. Having private health insurance is associated with an increase in the demand for dental care but it also reduces the likelihood of the households having a higher burden of dental expenditures as a share of household income. Older adults (65 years or older), compared to young adults (aged 29 years or less) are most likely to spend on dental care and most likely to be in the higher burden category (RRR 2.55 compared to lower burden category, p-value < 0.001). This study found significant interprovincial variation; Yukon, Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Alberta households were found to spend the most on dental care when compared to the rest of the provinces.
    International Journal of Economics and Finance. 08/2014; Vol. 6(No. 9):73.
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    ABSTRACT: The self-determined perception of health has been recognized as an important predictor of health care demand and expectations. We used the 2010 Canadian Community Health Survey data to examine determinants of perceived health for Canadians aged 40-64 and 65+. Our results indicate that psychological and social factors have just as strong an influence on perceived health status as the presence of chronic medical conditions. Respondents with less than secondary education were more likely report poor perceived health. Respondents with incomes of more than 80 thousand dollars were 2.16 times more likely to report good health compared with respondents with incomes less than 20 thousand dollars. Being stressed increased the odds of reporting poor health. Respondents who reported feeling stressed were 2.91 more likely to report worse health. When comparing those who described themselves as being very dissatisfied with their financial situation vs. very satisfied, the odds ratio was .38 (CI .18-.80) indicating that financial dissatisfaction was strongly associated with the perception of poor health. The association of the presence of chronic medical conditions with self-perceived health status was much stronger in the younger age group 40-64 than the older age group 65+.
    141st APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2013; 11/2013
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    ABSTRACT: The concern with healthcare expenditures growth in Canada and the rest of developed world has created an increasing need for research evidence to guide resource allocation decisions in the health sector. This paper examines one aspect of the effectiveness of primary health care spending at the provincial level in Canada and provides evidence that investing in primary health care does matter in improving the effectiveness of cervical cancer screening services. A province-level panel dataset 1992-2009 was constructed for the purpose of this study. Using random-effects regression models, we found that health spending per capita was associated with a significant increase in early diagnosis of cervical cancer at the province level controlling for important factors such as income, education, lifestyle factors and prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases. This study indicates that provinces that spent more on health care performed better after controlling for potential confounders.
    141st APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2013; 11/2013
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    ABSTRACT: This paper examines the relationship between country health spending and selected health outcomes (infant mortality and child mortality), using data from 133 low and middle-income countries for the years 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2006. Health spending has a significant effect on reducing infant and under-5 child mortality with an elasticity of 0.13 to 0.33 for infant mortality and 0.15 to 0.38 for under-5 child mortality in models estimated using fixed effects methods (depending on models employed). Government health spending also has a significant effect on reducing infant and child mortality and the size of the coefficient depends on the level of good governance achieved by the country, indicating that good governance increases the effectiveness of health spending. This paper contributes to the new evidence pointing to the importance of investing in health care services and the importance of governance in improving health outcomes.
    International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics 12/2012; · 0.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To date, international analyses on the strength of the relationship between country-level per capita income and per capita health expenditures have predominantly used developed countries' data. This study expands this work using a panel data set for 173 countries for the 1995-2006 period. We found that health care has an income elasticity that qualifies it as a necessity good, which is consistent with results of the most recent studies. Furthermore, we found that health care spending is least responsive to changes in income in low-income countries and most responsive to in middle-income countries with high-income countries falling in the middle. Finally, we found that 'Voice and Accountability' as an indicator of good governance seems to play a role in mobilizing more funds for health.
    International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics 03/2012; 12(2):145-62. · 0.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The notable increases in funding from various donors for health over the past several years have made examining the effectiveness of aid all the more important. We examine the extent to which donor funding for health substitutes for--rather than complements--health financing by recipient governments. We find evidence of a strong substitution effect. The proportionate decrease in government spending associated with an increase in donor funding is largest in low-income countries. The results suggest that aid needs to be structured in a way that better aligns donors' and recipient governments' incentives, using innovative approaches such as performance-based aid financing.
    Health Affairs 01/2009; 28(4):1045-55. · 4.64 Impact Factor
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    Marwa Farag