Marla Smithwick

VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (5)22.2 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The bioaccumulation of perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA) and two fluorotelomer alcohols (8:2 FTOH, 10:2 FTOH) by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) through dietary exposure, including depuration rates and metabolism was investigated. Concentrations in the spiked feed ranged from 10.9 μg g⁻¹ wet weight (wet wt) for PFOSA and 6.7 μg g⁻¹ wet wt for 8:2 FTOH to 5.0 μg g⁻¹ wet wt for 10:2 FTOH. Trout was fed at 1.5% body weight per day for 30 d and depuration was followed for up to 30 d following previously published dietary exposure protocols. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was the major perfluoroalkylsulfonate (PFSA) detected in fish following dietary exposure to PFOSA. Half-lives of PFOS and PFOSA were 16.9 ± 2.5 and 6.0 ± 0.4 d, respectively. A biomagnification factor (BMF) of 0.023 was calculated for PFOSA which indicates that dietary exposure to PFOSA does not result in biomagnification in the rainbow trout. PFOS had a BMF of 0.08. The fluorotelomer saturated acids (8:2 FTCA, 10:2 FTCA) and fluorotelomer unsaturated acids (8:2 FTUCA, 10:2 FTUCA) were the major products detected in rainbow trout following dietary exposure to 8:2 FTOH and 10:2 FTOH, respectively. Half-lives were 3.7 ± 0.4, 2.1 ± 0.5, 3.3, and 1.3 d for 10:2 FTCA, 10:2 FTUCA, 8:2 FTCA, and 8:2 FTUCA, respectively. Small amounts of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) were also detected in the FTOH exposed fish.
    Chemosphere 10/2010; 82(2):253-8. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Perfluoroalkyl substances are globally distributed anthropogenic contaminants. Their production and use have increased dramatically from the early 1980s. While many recent publications have reported concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAs) in biotic and abiotic samples, only limited work has addressed temporal trends. In this study we analyzed archived polar bear(Ursus maritimus) livertissue samples from two geographic locations in the North American Arctic, collected from 1972 to 2002. The eastern group, taken from the vicinity of northern Baffin Island, Canada, comprised 31 samples, and the western group, from the vicinity of Barrow, Alaska, comprised 27 samples. Samples were analyzed for perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) from carbon chain length C8 to C15, perfluorohexane sulfonate, PFOS, the neutral precursor perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), as well as 8:2 and 10:2 fluorotelomer acids and their alpha,beta unsaturated acid counterparts. Concentrations of PFOS and PFCAs with carbon chain lengths from C9 to C11 showed an exponential increase between 1972 and 2002 at both locations. Doubling times ranged from 3.6 +/- 0.9 years for perfluorononanoic acid in the eastern group to 13.1 +/- 4.0 years for PFOS in the western group. PFOSA showed decreasing concentrations over time at both locations, while the remaining PFAs showed no significant trends or were not detected in any sample. The doubling time for PFOS was similar to the doubling time of production of perfluoroctylsulfonyl-fluoride-based products during the 1990s.
    Environmental Science and Technology 03/2006; 40(4):1139-43. · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Perfluoroalkyl substances were determined in liver tissues and blood of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from five locations in the North American Arctic and two locations in the European Arctic. Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate, heptadecafluorooctane sulfonamide, and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates with C(8)-C(15) perfluorinated carbon chains were determined using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. PFOS concentrations were significantly correlated with age at four of seven sampling locations, while gender was not correlated to concentration for any compound measured. Populations in South Hudson Bay (2000-2730 ng/g wet wt), East Greenland (911-2140 ng/g wet wt), and Svalbard (756-1290 ng/g wet wt) had significantly (P < 0.05) higher PFOS concentrations than western populations such as the Chukchi Sea (435-729 ng/g wet wt). Concentrations of perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) with adjacent chain lengths (i.e., C9:C10 and C10:C11) were significantly correlated (P < 0.05), suggesting PFCAs have a common source within a location, but there were differences in proportions of PFCAs between eastern and western location sources. Concentrations of PFOS in liver tissue at five locations were correlated with concentrations of four polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (180, 153, 138, and 99) in adipose tissue of bears in the same populations, suggesting similar transport pathways and source regions of PFOS or precursors.
    Environmental Science and Technology 08/2005; 39(15):5517-23. · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Perfluoroalkyl substances were determined in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) collected in East Greenland (69 degrees 00'N to 74 degrees 00"N) to compare with other populations and to examine effects of age and gender on concentrations of these contaminants. Hepatic tissue (n = 29) was analyzed for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonate, heptadecafluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) with C9-C15 perfluorinated carbon chains by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations of PFOS found in samples from East Greenland (mean = 2,470+/-1,320 ng/g wet weight) were similar to Hudson Bay, Canada, and both populations had significantly greater concentrations than those reported for Alaska, suggesting a spatial trend. Male bears showed a significant increase in concentration up to age six for PFCAs with C10-C14 carbon chains (r2 > or = 0.50, p < or = 0.05). Significant correlations were found between adjacent chain length PFCAs, (e.g., PFNA to PFDA: p < 0.05; r2 = 0.90). This may indicate a common source for these chemicals, although the specifics of source and mode of transport are unknown. No significant correlations were found between concentrations of PFCAs in liver tissue and previously reported polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners analyzed in fat samples from the same bears.
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 04/2005; 24(4):981-6. · 2.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently it was discovered that humans and animals from various urban and remote global locations contained a novel class of persistent fluorinated contaminants, the most pervasive of which was perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Lower concentrations of perfluorooctanoate, perfluorohexane sulfonate, and heptadecafluorooctane sulfonamide have also been detected in various samples. Although longer perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) are used in industry and have been detected in fish following a spill of aqueous film forming foam, no studies have been conducted to examine the widespread occurrence of long-chain PFCAs (e.g., CF3(CF2)xCOO-, where x > 6). To provide a preliminary assessment of fluorinated contaminants, including PFCAs, in the Canadian Arctic, polar bears, ringed seals, arctic fox, mink, common loons, northern fulmars, black guillemots, and fish were collected at various locations in the circumpolar region. PFOS was the major contaminant detected in most samples and in polar bear liver was the most prominent organohalogen (mean PFOS = 3.1 microg/g wet weight) compared to individual polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, chlordane, or hexachlorocyclohexane-related chemicals in fat. Using two independent mass spectral techniques, it was confirmed that all samples also contained ng/g concentrations of a homologous series of PFCAs, ranging in length from 9 to 15 carbons. Sum concentrations of PFCAs (sum(PFCAs)) were lower than total PFOS equivalents (sum(PFOS)) in all samples except for mink. In mink, perfluorononanoate (PFNA) concentrations exceeded PFOS concentrations, indicating that PFNA and other PFCAs should be considered in future risk assessments. Mammals feeding at higher trophic levels had greater concentrations of PFOS and PFCAs than mammals feeding at lower trophic positions. In general, odd-length PFCAs exceeded the concentration of even-length PFCAs, and concentrations decreased with increasing chain length in mammals. PFOS and PFCA concentrations were much lower for animals living in the Canadian Arctic than for the same species living in mid-latitude regions of the United States. Future studies should continue to monitor all fluorinated contaminants and examine the absolute and relative toxicities for this novel suite of PFCAs.
    Environmental Science and Technology 01/2004; 38(2):373-80. · 5.48 Impact Factor