[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
A custom designed HD exposure system was used to deliver controlled inhaled doses to an animal model through an endotracheal tube.
Target HD vapor challenges were generated by a temperature controlled bubbler/aerosol trap, while concentration was monitored near real-time by gas chromatography. Animal breathing parameters were monitored real-time by an in-line pneumotach, pressure transducer, and Buxco pulmonary analysis computer/software. For each exposure, the challenge atmosphere was allowed to stabilize at the desired concentration while the anesthetized animal was provided humidity controlled clean air. Once the target concentration was achieved and stable, a portion of the challenge atmosphere was drawn past the endotracheal tube, where the animal inhaled the exposure ad libitum. During the exposure, HD vapor concentration and animal weight were used to calculate the needed inhaled volume to achieve the target inhaled dose (μg/kg). The exposures were halted when the inhaled volume was achieved.
The exposure system successfully controlled HD concentrations from 22.2 to 278 mg/m3 and accurately delivered inhaled doses between 49.3 and 1120 μg/kg with actual administered doses being within 4% of the target level.
This exposure system administers specific HD inhaled doses to evaluate physiological effects and for evaluation of potential medical countermeasure treatments.
Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods. 10/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Assessing the hazards of accidental exposure to toxic industrial chemical (TIC) vapors and evaluating therapeutic compounds or treatment regimens require the development of appropriate animal models. Objective: The objective of this project was to develop an exposure system for delivering controlled vapor concentrations of TICs to the skin of anesthetized weanling pigs. Injury levels targeted for study were superficial dermal (SD) and deep dermal (DD) skin lesions as defined histopathologically. Materials and methods: The exposure system was capable of simultaneously delivering chlorine or bromine vapor to four, 3-cm diameter exposure cups placed over skin between the axillary and inguinal areas of the ventral abdomen. Vapor concentrations were generated by mixing saturated bromine or chlorine vapor with either dried dilution air or nitrogen. Results: Bromine exposure concentrations ranged from 6.5 × 10(-4) to 1.03 g/L, and exposure durations ranged from 1 to 45 min. A 7-min skin exposure to bromine vapors at 0.59 g/L was sufficient to produce SD injuries, while a 17-min exposure produced a DD injury. Chlorine exposure concentrations ranged from 1.0 to 2.9 g/L (saturated vapor concentration) for exposures ranging from 3 to 90 min. Saturated chlorine vapor challenges for up to 30 min did not induce significant dermal injuries, whereas saturated chlorine vapor with wetted material on the skin surface for 30-60 min induced SD injuries. DD chlorine injuries could not be induced with this system. Conclusion: The vapor exposure system described in this study provides a means for safely regulating, quantifying and delivering TIC vapors to the skin of weanling swine as a model to evaluate therapeutic treatments.
Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology 06/2013; · 1.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chlorine is an industrial chemical that can cause cutaneous burns. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of tissue damage and wound healing is important for the selection and development of an effective post-exposure treatment. This study investigated the effect of cutaneous chlorine vapor exposure using a weanling swine burn model and microarray analysis. Ventral abdominal sites were exposed to a mean calculated chlorine vapor concentration of 2.9 g/L for 30 min. Skin samples were harvested at 1.5 h, 3 h, 6 h, and 24 h post-exposure and stored in RNAlater(®) until processing. Total RNA was isolated, processed, and hybridized to Affymetrix GeneChip(®) Porcine Genome Arrays. Differences in gene expression were observed with respect to sampling time. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis revealed seven common biological functions among the top ten functions of each time point, while canonical pathway analysis revealed 3 genes (IL-6, IL1A, and IL1B) were commonly shared among three significantly altered signaling pathways. The transcripts encoding all three genes were identified as common potential therapeutic targets for Phase II/III clinical trial, or FDA-approved drugs. The present study shows transcriptional profiling of cutaneous wounds induced by chlorine exposure identified potential targets for developing therapeutics against chlorine-induced skin injury.
Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology 04/2012; · 1.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bromine is an industrial chemical that can cause severe cutaneous burns. This study was a preliminary investigation into the effect of cutaneous exposure to bromine vapor using a weanling swine burn model and microarray analysis. Ventral abdominal sites were exposed to a mean calculated bromine vapor concentration of 0.69 g L(-1) for 10 or 20 min. At 48 h postexposure, total RNA from skin samples was isolated, processed, and hybridized to Affymetrix GeneChip Porcine Genome Arrays. Expression analysis revealed that bromine vapor exposure for 10 or 20 min promoted similar transcriptional changes in the number of significantly modulated probe sets. A minimum of 83% of the probe sets was similar for both exposure times. Ingenuity pathways analysis revealed eight common biological functions among the top 10 functions of each experimental group, in which 30 genes were commonly shared among 19 significantly altered signaling pathways. Transcripts encoding heme oxygenase 1, interleukin-1β, interleukin 2 receptor gamma chain, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were identified as common potential therapeutic targets for Phase II/III clinical trial or FDA-approved drugs. The present study is an initial assessment of the transcriptional responses to cutaneous bromine vapor exposure identifying molecular networks and genes that could serve as targets for developing therapeutics for bromine-induced skin injury.
Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology 03/2011; 25(4):252-62. · 1.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bromine is an industrial chemical that causes severe cutaneous burns. When selecting or developing effective treatments for bromine burns, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms of tissue damage and wound healing. This study investigated the effect of cutaneous bromine vapor exposure on gene expression using a weanling swine burn model by microarray analysis. Ventral abdominal sites were exposed to a mean calculated bromine vapor concentration of 0.51 g/L for 7 or 17 min. At 6 h, 48 h, and 7 days post-exposure, total RNA from skin samples was isolated, processed, and analyzed with Affymetrix GeneChip® Porcine Genome Arrays (N = 3 per experimental group). Differences in gene expression were observed with respect to exposure duration and sampling time. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) revealed four common biological functions (cancer, cellular movement, cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, and tissue development) among the top ten functions of each experimental group, while canonical pathway analysis revealed 9 genes (ARG2, CCR1, HMOX1, ATF2, IL-8, TIMP1, ESR1, HSPAIL, and SELE) that were commonly shared among four significantly altered signaling pathways. Among these, the transcripts encoding HMOX1 and ESR1 were identified using IPA as common potential therapeutic targets for Phase II/III clinical trial or FDA-approved drugs. The present study describes the transcriptional responses to cutaneous bromine vapor exposure identifying molecular networks and genes that could serve as targets for developing therapeutics for bromine-induced skin injury.
Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology 01/2011; 30(3):187-97. · 1.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is evidence for immunotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 (AFB(1)) in chronic animal feeding studies; however, little information is available as to the effects of inhalation exposure. This study evaluated the acute affects of aerosolized AFB(1) on systemic immune function of female C57BL/6N mice following a single aerosol exposure. Mice were exposed in nose-only inhalation tubes to 0, 2.86, 6.59 and 10 mug AFB(1) aerosol/L air for 90 minutes. A negative control group of untreated mice and a positive control group of cyclophosphamide-treated mice were included to account for day to day variation. Three days following exposure, mice were sacrificed and body, liver, lung, thymus and spleen weights, and complete blood counts and white blood cell differentials were measured. Splenocytes were isolated for flow cytometric analysis of CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes, CD19(+) B-cells and natural killer cells (NK 1.1(+)). The effect of AFB(1) on humoral immunity was assessed by measuring serum anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) IgM levels. Of the tissues examined, only the thymus weight of AFB(1) exposed mice decreased significantly compared to naive mice; however, the decrease was not dose related and was also observed in the 0 AFB(1) aerosol control group. A decrease in the mean white blood cell count of treated vs. naive mice was observed at all dose levels but was clearly not dose related and was statistically significant only in the 0 and 2.86 mug/L groups. Red blood cell and platelet counts and white blood cell differentials were not significantly affected by AFB(1). The number of CD4(+) (helper T-cells), CD8(+) (cytotoxic T-cells) and CD19(+) (B-cells) decreased in spleens of AFB(1) aerosol exposed mice compared to naive mice; however, the decrease was not dose-related and was also observed in the 0 AFB(1) exposure group. Dose-related changes in the CD4(+)/CD8(+) T-lymphocyte ratios were not observed. The IgM response to KLH was not significantly different in AFB(1) compared to naive mice, suggesting that AFB(1) did not effect antigen-specific antibody production. Based on the results of this study, a single AFB(1) inhalation exposure up to 10 mug/L for 90 minutes (CxT = 900 mug .min/L) did not significantly alter the immune parameters measured in this study. The aerosol vehicle (ethanol) and/or stress could have masked subtle AFB(1)-dependent changes in thymus and spleen weights, and in splenic lymphocyte subpopulations. However, for other immunological parameters, such as the IgM response to KLH, there was clearly no significant effect of AFB(1) aerosol exposure.
Journal of Immunotoxicology 02/2006; 3(1):11-20. · 1.57 Impact Factor