[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nuclear export of mRNAs and pre-ribosomal subunits (pre40S and pre60S) is fundamental to all eukaryotes. While genetic approaches in budding yeast have identified bona fide export factors for mRNAs and pre60S subunits, little is known regarding nuclear export of pre40S subunits. The yeast heterodimeric transport receptor Mex67-Mtr2 (TAP-p15 in humans) binds mRNAs and pre60S subunits in the nucleus and facilitates their passage through the nuclear pore complex (NPC) into the cytoplasm by interacting with Phe-Gly (FG)-rich nucleoporins that line its transport channel. By exploiting a combination of genetic, cell-biological, and biochemical approaches, we uncovered an unanticipated role of Mex67-Mtr2 in the nuclear export of 40S pre-ribosomes. We show that recruitment of Mex67-Mtr2 to pre40S subunits requires loops emanating from its NTF2-like domains and that the C-terminal FG-rich nucleoporin interacting UBA-like domain within Mex67 contributes to the transport of pre40S subunits to the cytoplasm. Remarkably, the same loops also recruit Mex67-Mtr2 to pre60S subunits and to the Nup84 complex, the respective interactions crucial for nuclear export of pre60S subunits and mRNAs. Thus Mex67-Mtr2 is a unique transport receptor that employs a common interaction surface to participate in the nuclear export of both pre-ribosomal subunits and mRNAs. Mex67-Mtr2 could engage a regulatory crosstalk among the three major export pathways for optimal cellular growth and proliferation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF) is a key component of the cellular adaptation mechanisms to hypoxic conditions. HIFα subunits are degraded by prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain (PHD) enzyme-dependent prolyl-4-hydroxylation of LxxLAP motifs that confer oxygen-dependent proteolytic degradation. Interestingly, only three non-HIFα proteins contain two conserved LxxLAP motifs, including the putative RNA helicase with a zinc finger domain HELZ. However, HELZ proteolytic regulation was found to be oxygen-independent, supporting the notion that a LxxLAP sequence motif alone is not sufficient for oxygen-dependent protein destruction. Since biochemical pathways involving RNA often require RNA helicases to modulate RNA structure and activity, we used luciferase reporter gene constructs and metabolic labeling to demonstrate that HELZ overexpression activates global protein translation whereas RNA-interference mediated HELZ suppression had the opposite effect. Although HELZ interacted with the poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) via its PAM2 motif, PABP was dispensable for HELZ function in protein translation. Importantly, downregulation of HELZ reduced translational initiation, resulting in the disassembly of polysomes, in a reduction of cell proliferation and hypophosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(7):e22107. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The evolutionary conserved protein Sem1/Dss1 is a bona fide subunit of the regulatory particle (RP) of the proteasome and in mammalian cells stabilizes the tumor suppressor protein BRCA2. A recent study from our laboratory has revealed an unexpected non- proteasomal role of Sem1 in mRNA export. We found that Sem1, independent of the RP, is a functional component of the nuclear pore associated TREX-2 complex that is directly involved in the dynamic relocalization of a subset of DNA loci to the nuclear periphery. Like other components of TREX-2, Sem1 is required for proper nuclear export of mRNAs, transcription elongation and preventing transcription-associated genomic instability. Strikingly, Sem1 associates with a third multi-subunit protein complex namely the COP9 signalosome, which is involved in de-neddylation. We propose that Sem1 is a versatile protein that regulates the functional integrity of multiple protein complexes involved in diverse biological pathways.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The evolutionarily conserved protein Sem1/Dss1 is a subunit of the regulatory particle (RP) of the proteasome, and, in mammalian cells, binds the tumor suppressor protein BRCA2. Here, we describe a new function for yeast Sem1. We show that sem1 mutants are impaired in messenger RNA (mRNA) export and transcription elongation, and induce strong transcription-associated hyper-recombination phenotypes. Importantly, Sem1, independent of the RP, is functionally linked to the mRNA export pathway. Biochemical analyses revealed that, in addition to the RP, Sem1 coenriches with components of two other multisubunit complexes: the nuclear pore complex (NPC)-associated TREX-2 complex that is required for transcription-coupled mRNA export, and the COP9 signalosome, which is involved in deneddylation. Notably, targeting of Thp1, a TREX-2 component, to the NPC is perturbed in a sem1 mutant. These findings reveal an unexpected nonproteasomal function of Sem1 in mRNA export and in prevention of transcription-associated genome instability. Thus, Sem1 is a versatile protein that might stabilize multiple protein complexes involved in diverse pathways.
The Journal of Cell Biology 04/2009; 184(6):833-46. · 10.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The architecture of human chromosomes in interphase nuclei is still largely unknown. Microscopy studies have indicated that specific regions of chromosomes are located in close proximity to the nuclear lamina (NL). This has led to the idea that certain genomic elements may be attached to the NL, which may contribute to the spatial organization of chromosomes inside the nucleus. However, sequences in the human genome that interact with the NL in vivo have not been identified. Here we construct a high-resolution map of the interaction sites of the entire genome with NL components in human fibroblasts. This map shows that genome-lamina interactions occur through more than 1,300 sharply defined large domains 0.1-10 megabases in size. These lamina-associated domains (LADs) are typified by low gene-expression levels, indicating that LADs represent a repressive chromatin environment. The borders of LADs are demarcated by the insulator protein CTCF, by promoters that are oriented away from LADs, or by CpG islands, suggesting possible mechanisms of LAD confinement. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the human genome is divided into large, discrete domains that are units of chromosome organization within the nucleus.