[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study the antioxidant composition of fresh and stored strawberries and the bioavailability of the main strawberry bioactive compounds were determined in humans. In addition we have investigated plasma total antioxidant capacity. On 13 healthy volunteers, blood samples were collected before and after acute ingestion of fresh and stored strawberries, 300 g respectively. Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) values after consumption of fresh and stored strawberries showed a significant increase (P < 0.05) at 5 and 8 hours time interval, while significantly decreased TRAP (Total Radical-Trapping Antioxidant Parameter) values (P < 0.05) were found at 8 hours respect to baseline after stored strawberries consumption. After consuming fresh strawberries, plasma levels of -carotene increased significantly (P < 0.05) respect to stored ones. Moreover, consumption of fresh and stored strawberries resulted in a significant increase of vitamin C at 2, 3 and 5 hours (P < 0.05). The bioavailable amount of strawberries antioxidant compounds reflects the variations observed in fresh and stored fruits. We could summarize that the global food quality is related to both native quantity of bioactive compounds and storage treatments.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this randomised, double-blind, crossover study in normolipidaemic volunteers was to investigate the effect of consumption of an experimental cheese (from cows fed a grass and maize silage-based diet with 5% of linseed oil added) or a control cheese (without linseed oil) on both plasma lipids and fatty acid content of serum lipid fractions. A lower content of medium-chain saturated fatty acids as well as a higher content of stearic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acids were found in the experimental cheese; its consumption was successful in limiting the enhanced blood concentration of atherogenic fatty acids, without affecting fatty acid content of serum lipid fractions. These results indicate that dairy products could be considered as key foods for fat modifications with the objective of optimizing their nutritional quality.
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 07/2012; · 1.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the overall diet quality effects, mainly on antioxidant nutritional status and some cytokines related to the cellular immune response as well as oxidative stress in a healthy Italian population group.
An observational study was conducted on 131 healthy free-living subjects. Dietary intake was assessed by dietary diary. Standardised procedures were used to make anthropometric measurements. On blood samples (serum, plasma and whole blood) were evaluated: antioxidant status by vitamin A, vitamin E, carotenoids, vitamin C, uric acid, SH groups, SOD and GPx activities; lipid blood profile by total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides; total antioxidant capacity by FRAP and TRAP; the immune status by TNF-α, and IL-10 cytokines; the levels of malondialdehyde in the erythrocytes as marker of lipid peroxidation.
The daily macronutrients intake (g/day) have shown a high lipids consumption and significant differences between the sexes with regard to daily micronutrients intake. On total sample mean Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) was 4.5 ± 1.6 and no significant differences between the sexes were present. A greater adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern increases the circulating plasma levels of carotenoids (lutein plus zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, α and β-carotene), vitamin A and vitamin E. The levels of endogenous antioxidants were also improved. We observed higher levels in anti-inflammatory effect cytokines (IL-10) in subjects with MDS ≥ 6, by contrast, subjects with MDS ≤ 3 show higher levels in sense of proinflammatory (TNF α P < 0.05). Lower levels of MDA were associated with MDS > 4. Our data suggest a protective role of vitamin A against chronic inflammatory conditions especially in subjects with the highest adherence to the Mediterranean-type dietary pattern.
Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with significant amelioration of multiple risk factors, including a better cardiovascular risk profile, reduced oxidative stress and modulation of inflammation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the effect of the consumption of two cheese varieties differing for fat quality on blood lipid profile and redox status biomarkers in 30 selected healthy volunteers, consuming either the experimental cheese (from milk produced by cows fed a grass and maize silage based diet with 5% of linseed oil added) or the control cheese (from normal cows' milk) for 4 weeks according to a crossover design. The experimental cheese had a lower content of medium-chain saturated fatty acids and a higher content of stearic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acids; its consumption led to higher levels of vitamins C and E and stearic acid in blood, while myristic acid and oxidized low-density lipoprotein concentrations were significantly lower. As myristic acid and oxidized low-density lipoprotein are highly correlated with increased atherogenic risk and vitamins C and E with antioxidant activity, the enrichment of cows' diet with linseed oil could provide a dietary option to prevent cardiovascular diseases risk.
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 08/2011; 62(6):660-669. · 1.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we have explored the relationship between the cultivation method and the concentration of major flavonoid aglycones, hydroxycinnamic acids, carotenoids and the total antioxidant activity of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv Perfectpeel); in addition, we have investigated the bioactivity of polyphenol extracts from tomato. The main polyphenols in extracts were quercetin (33.90 ± 6.31 mg kg−1 and 17.92 ± 1.09 mg kg−1 in conventional and organic extracts), chlorogenic acid (3.52 ± 0.74 mg kg−1 and 2.82 ± 0.92 mg kg−1 in conventional and organic extracts) and caffeic acid (3.61 ± 0.71 mg kg−1 and 3.29 ± 0.33 mg kg−1 in conventional and organic extracts). Although statistical differences were found between organic and conventional extracts in several target compounds, no difference in biological effect was observed using cell models. The observed Trans Epithelial Electrical Resistance values were not significantly different between organic and conventional tomato extracts, but we have observed, in both samples, a decrease in tight-junction permeability at 17 μm of polyphenol concentrations. Antioxidant compounds entering within the cell could exert an antioxidant action, nevertheless at concentrations >17 μm could have a pro-oxidant effect.
International Journal of Food Science & Technology 11/2010; 45(12):2637 - 2644. · 1.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Strawberries contain many antioxidant phytochemicals such as vitamin C, carotenoids and phenolic compounds including anthocyanins (ACN). In the present study, antioxidant composition of fresh strawberries (FS) and stored strawberries (SS) and the bioavailability of the main strawberry bioactive compounds were determined in human subjects. Thirteen healthy volunteers consumed 300 g of FS and SS on two separate occasions. Blood, before and at different time points from meal consumption, as well as 24 h urine, was collected, and parent compounds and metabolites of the different compounds were determined by HPLC or LC/MS/MS. A reduction in α-carotene plasma concentrations v. baseline values was recorded after the consumption of FS, although the amount of this carotenoid was higher in the SS. On the contrary, a significant increase of plasma vitamin C after 2, 3 and 5 h (P < 0.05) of FS and SS consumption was recorded. No quercetin and ACN were found in plasma, while coumaric acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4HBA, 56 and 54% of pelargonidin-3-glucoside (Pel-glc) ingested with FS and SS, respectively) and protocatechuic acid (59 and 34% of cyanidin-3-glucoside ingested with FS and SS, respectively) over 8 h from strawberry consumption were retrieved in the plasma. Pelargonidin glucuronide, pelargonidin glucoside and pelargonidin aglycone peaked in urine within 2 h of strawberry consumption, and the 24 h amount excreted was always approximately 0.9% of the Pel-glc dose ingested. The data indicated that the content of phytochemicals in strawberries may influence the bioavailability of individual compounds. Furthermore, in the present study, the metabolism of Pel-glc was elucidated, and, for the first time, 4HBA was suggested to be a major human metabolite of Pel-glc.
The British journal of nutrition 10/2010; 104(8):1165-73. · 3.45 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genetic modification in fruit and vegetables could lead to changes in metabolic pathways and, therefore, to the variation of the molecular pattern, with particular attention to antioxidant compounds not well-described in the literature. The aim of the present study was to compare the quality composition of transgenic wheat ( Triticum durum L.), corn ( Zea mays L.), and tomato ( Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) to the nontransgenic control with a similar genetic background. In the first experiment, Ofanto wheat cultivar containing the tobacco rab1 gene and nontransgenic Ofanto were used. The second experiment compared two transgenic lines of corn containing Bacillus thuringiensis "Cry toxin" gene (PR33P67 and Pegaso Bt) to their nontransgenic forms. The third experiment was conducted on transgenic tomato ( Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) containing the Agrobacterium rhizogenes rolD gene and its nontransgenic control (cv. Tondino). Conventional and genetically modified crops were compared in terms of fatty acids content, unsaponifiable fraction of antioxidants, total phenols, polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamin C, total antioxidant activity, and mineral composition. No significant differences were observed for qualitative traits analyzed in wheat and corn samples. In tomato samples, the total antioxidant activity (TAA), measured by FRAP assay, and the naringenin content showed a lower value in genetically modified organism (GMO) samples (0.35 mmol of Fe (2+) 100 g (-1) and 2.82 mg 100 g (-1), respectively), in comparison to its nontransgenic control (0.41 mmol of Fe (2+) 100 g (-1) and 4.17 mg 100 g (-1), respectively). On the basis of the principle of substantial equivalence, as articulated by the World Health Organization, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, these data support the conclusion that GM events are nutritionally similar to conventional varieties of wheat, corn, and tomato on the market today.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 10/2008; 56(19):9206-14. · 2.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cultured rat hepatocytes and human hepatoma HepG2 cells were used to evaluate the hepatoprotective properties of polyphenolic extracts from the edible part of artichoke (AE). The hepatocytes were exposed to H2O2generated in situ by glucose oxidase and were treated with either AE, or pure chlorogenic acid (ChA) or with the well known antioxidant, N, N'-diphenyl-p-phenilenediamine (DPPD). Addition of glucose oxidase to the culture medium caused depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH) content, accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the cultures, as a lipid peroxidation indicator, and cell death. These results demonstrated that AE protected cells from the oxidative stress caused by glucose oxidase, comparable to DPPD. Furthermore, AE, as well as ChA, prevented the loss of total GSH and the accumulation of MDA. Treatment of HepG2 cells for 24 h with AE reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, however, ChA had no prominent effects on the cell death rate. Similarly, AE rather than ChA induced apoptosis, measured by flow cytometric analysis of annexin and by activation of caspase-3, in HepG2 cells. Our findings indicate that AE had a marked antioxidative potential that protects hepatocytes from an oxidative stress. Furthermore, AE reduced cell viability and had an apoptotic activity on a human liver cancer cell line.
Nutrition and Cancer 01/2008; 60(2):276-83. · 2.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current growing interest for natural antioxidants has led to a renewed scientific attention for artichoke, due not only to its nutritional value, but, overall, to its polyphenolic content, showing strong antioxidant properties. The major constituents of artichoke extracts are hydroxycinnamic acids such as chlorogenic acid, dicaffeoylquinic acids caffeic acid and ferulic acid, and flavonoids such as luteolin and apigenin glycosides. In vitro studies, using cultured rat hepatocytes, have shown its hepatoprotective functions and in vivo studies have shown the inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis in human subjects. Several studies have shown the effect on animal models of artichoke extracts, while information on human bioavailability and metabolism of hydroxycinnamates derivatives is still lacking. Results showed a plasma maximum concentration of 6.4 (SD 1.8) ng/ml for chlorogenic acid after 1 h and its disappearance within 2 h (P< 0.05). Peak plasma concentrations of 19.5 (SD 6.9) ng/ml for total caffeic acid were reached within 1 h, while ferulic acid plasma concentrations showed a biphasic profile with 6.4 (SD1.5) ng/ml and 8.4 (SD4.6) ng/ml within 1 h and after 8 h respectively. We observed a significant increase of dihydrocaffeic acid and dihydroferulic acid total levels after 8 h (P<0.05). No circulating plasma levels of luteolin and apigenin were present. Our study confirms the bioavailability of metabolites of hydroxycinnamic acids after ingestion of cooked edible Cynara scolymus L. (cultivar Violetto di Provenza).
British Journal Of Nutrition 05/2007; 97(5):963-9. · 3.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this intervention trial was to evaluate the impact of consumption of two different types of strawberry jam on glycaemic status in 16 non-complicated and 7 type 2 diabetic volunteers, having a body mass index higher than 30 kg/m2 (obesity status) and selected according to the specific criteria. Volunteers consumed a test meal consisting of 30 g of white bread, 50 g of an experimental jam (sweetened with organic apple juice) and 150 ml of whole cow milk; a control jam (sweetened with white beet sugar) was provided within the same test meal with a week gap. For the determination of glucose and insulin levels, venous blood samples were collected after overnight fasting and every 30 min for 3 h after the ingestion of the test meal. Both groups of volunteers had a significantly lower (P < 0.05) increase of glucose and insulin levels at 30 and 60 min after the consumption of the experimental jam with respect to the control one, highlighting the importance of the type of carbohydrates in controlling glycaemic status: indeed, this type of jam, containing mainly fructose, was successful not only for diabetics but also for subjects at risk of developing this pathology, with a severe obesity condition. The consumption of this kind of product could be a strategy to enhance the quality of life in type 2 diabetic people, helping them to follow a dietary regimen including highly accepted food.
Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism 5(2).