[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular calcification (VC) has a significant effect in cardiovascular diseases on dialysis patients. However, VC is assessed with x-ray-based techniques, which do not inform about calcium localization (intima, media, atherosclerosis-related). The aim of this work is to study VC and its related factors using arterial ultrasound to report the exact location of calcium.
This was an observational, cross-sectional, case-control study that included 232 patients in dialysis and 208 age- and sex-matched controls with normal kidney function. Demographic data and laboratory values were collated. Carotid, femoral, and brachial ultrasounds were performed to assess VC and atherosclerosis burden using a standardized protocol.
Cardiovascular risk factors were predominantly found in controls, although the burden of atherosclerosis was higher in the dialysis group. VC was significantly more prevalent in the group of patients on dialysis than control subjects, and in both groups the most prevalent pattern of VC was linear calcification located in the intima of the artery wall. Age and undergoing dialysis (with or without previous cardiovascular diseases) were positively and significantly associated with linear calcification. Conversely, the absence of atherosclerosis and low levels of C-reactive protein and phosphorus significantly impeded the development of linear calcification.
VC in large, conduit arteries is more prevalent in patients on dialysis than controls and is predominantly located in a linear fashion in the intima of the arteries.
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 10/2010; 6(2):303-10. · 5.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular risk scoring (Score) does not specifically address chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The aim of our study is to quantify atherosclerosis using carotid ultrasound and ankle-brachial index (ABI) and to assess its additional value in risk scoring.
In this cross-sectional, observational study, patients were studied according to a standardized protocol including carotid ultrasound and ABI to determine the atherosclerosis score (AS), ranging from absence of to severe atherosclerosis (AS 0 to AS 3).
We included 409 CKD-affected patients (231 on dialysis, 99 in CKD Stages IV-V and 79 in CKD Stages I-III) and 851 subjects with normal renal function. The presence and severity of atherosclerosis was significantly higher in the CKD group than in the controls at every decade of age studied. Among the CKD-affected subjects, the prevalence of carotid plaques was significantly higher in the dialysis group (78.3%) than in the group in CKD Stages I-III (55.6%, P < 0.001). We identified 174 patients at low-intermediate risk. Among them, 110 (63.2%) presented either moderate (AS 2) or severe (AS 3) atherosclerosis. Variables significantly (P < 0.05) and positively related to atherosclerosis were being on dialysis [OR = 3.40, 95% CI (1.73, 6.78) vs CKD Stages I-III], age [OR = 1.08, 95% CI (1.06-1.11)] and C-reactive protein [OR = 1.04, 95% CI (1.01-1.08)]. Conversely, female sex was negatively related to atherosclerosis [OR = 0.40, 95% CI (0.23-0.71), P = 0.002].
The use of carotid ultrasound and ABI identifies atherosclerosis in a population of CKD patients in which risk scoring underestimates atherosclerosis burden.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTRA) has a beneficial effect on renal function in some, but not all, patients with atheromatous renal artery stenosis. Our aim is to identify factors influencing clinical success after PTRA in this group of patients. Seventy-three patients undergoing PTRA were studied; 14 patients were excluded from final analysis because of restenosis. All patients had chronic renal failure secondary to vascular nephropathy and renal artery stenosis. The diagnosis of renal artery stenosis was based on carbon dioxide digital angiography showing greater than 60% luminal narrowing. The rate of renal failure progression was assessed by the slope of the regression line of serum creatinine versus time. At least three consecutive creatinine measurements before and after angioplasty were required for study entry. Response to PTRA was made by comparison of the slope before and after PTRA. The association of age, serum creatinine level, proteinuria, renal size, pre-PTRA slope value, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease with response to PTRA was assessed by multiple regression analysis, with changes in slope values as the dependent variable. Renal function improved in 34 of 59 patients (57.6%). Mean follow-up was 627 +/- 284 (SD) days. The slope of the reciprocal serum creatinine plot before PTRA was significantly associated with a favorable change in progression rate after PTRA (beta = -0.012; P = 0.004). A scatter plot showed a statistically significant inverse correlation between pre-PTRA slope values and post-PTRA slope changes (r = -0.46; P = 0.000). Rapidly progressive renal failure is associated with a favorable response on renal failure progression after PTRA in patients with vascular nephropathy and renal artery stenosis.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases 02/2002; 39(1):60-6. · 5.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BsmI vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphism has been associated with the severity of hyperparathyroidism in patients on hemodialysis. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of this polymorphism on parathyroid function and serum calcitriol levels in patients with different degrees of chronic renal failure (CRF) before dialysis.
A total of 248 CRF patients, divided into three groups according to creatinine clearance (CCr; mild CRF group> 60 to </=85 ml/min, N = 54; moderate CRF group> 35 to </=60 ml/min, N = 113; severe CRF group> 10 to </=35 ml/min, N = 81), had their serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and calcitriol levels measured and BsmI genotype frequencies estimated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Diabetics, those on treatment with steroids, vitamin D or derivatives, and phosphorus binding agents were excluded. All those with serum calcium levels of <2.25 mmol/liter or> 2.5 mmol/liter and serum phosphorus levels of> 1.6 mmol/liter or who needed phosphorus binding agents were excluded. The statistical analysis was done with the general factorial analysis of variance entering first PTH and then calcitriol as the dependent variable; the genotype (BB, Bb and bb), sex and CCr group were defined as factors; and covariables included serum calcium, serum phosphorus, 1/creatinine versus time slope, PTH when calcitriol was the dependent variable, and calcitriol when PTH was the dependent variable.
When serum PTH levels were entered as the dependent variable, serum calcium, CCr group, and the interaction of genotype with the CCr group were found to be significant factors (P = 0.025, P <0.001 and P = 0.039, respectively). When serum calcitriol levels were entered as the dependent variable, genotype, the interaction of genotype with CCr, the CCr group, and the 1/creatine versus time slope were found to be significant (P = 0.027, P = 0.028, P <0.001 and P = 0.044, respectively). The marginal means of PTH, adjusted with the general factorial analysis of variance across the three groups were: (a) mild CRF group, BB 5.3 pmol/liter (CI 0 to 13.8), Bb 5.5 pmol/liter (CI 2 to 9), bb 5.4 pmol/liter (CI 0.6 to 10.2); (b) moderate CRF group, BB 6.2 pmol/liter (CI 1.5 to 10.9), Bb 7.8 pmol/liter (CI 5.3 to 10.3), bb 7.5 pmol/liter (CI 4.8 to 10.1); (c) severe CRF group, BB 9.3 pmol/liter (CI 4.2 to 14.3), Bb 17.1 pmol/liter (CI 13.9 to 20.2), bb 21.9 pmol/liter (CI 18.7 to 25.2). The marginal means of calcitriol adjusted with the general factorial analysis of variance across the three groups were: (a) mild CRF group, BB 47 pg/ml (CI 37 to 57), Bb 40.9 pg/ml (CI 37 to 44.8), bb 32.6 pg/ml (CI 26.8 to 38. 4); (b) moderate CRF group, BB 24.1 pg/ml (CI 18.3 to 29.8), Bb 26.6 pg/ml (CI 23.5 to 29.7), bb 25.3 pg/ml (CI 22 to 28.6); (c) severe CRF group, BB 27.4 pg/ml (CI 21.3 to 33.5), Bb 19.4 pg/ml (CI 15.5 to 23.2), bb 20.4 pg/ml (CI 16.1 to 24.7).
The progression of hyperparathyroidism is slower in predialysis patients with BB genotypes than in the other genotypes. Also, calcitriol levels are less reduced in the BB genotype, which may act to lessen the severity of secondary hyperparathyroidism.
Kidney International 11/1999; 56(4):1349-53. · 8.52 Impact Factor