[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a major cause of cardiovascular death. The sequence of events that promote DVT remains obscure, largely as a result of the lack of an appropriate rodent model. We describe a novel mouse model of DVT which reproduces a frequent trigger and resembles the time course, histological features, and clinical presentation of DVT in humans. We demonstrate by intravital two-photon and epifluorescence microscopy that blood monocytes and neutrophils crawling along and adhering to the venous endothelium provide the initiating stimulus for DVT development. Using conditional mutants and bone marrow chimeras, we show that intravascular activation of the extrinsic pathway of coagulation via tissue factor (TF) derived from myeloid leukocytes causes the extensive intraluminal fibrin formation characteristic of DVT. We demonstrate that thrombus-resident neutrophils are indispensable for subsequent DVT propagation by binding factor XII (FXII) and by supporting its activation through the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Correspondingly, neutropenia, genetic ablation of FXII, or disintegration of NETs each confers protection against DVT amplification. Platelets associate with innate immune cells via glycoprotein Ibα and contribute to DVT progression by promoting leukocyte recruitment and stimulating neutrophil-dependent coagulation. Hence, we identified a cross talk between monocytes, neutrophils, and platelets responsible for the initiation and amplification of DVT and for inducing its unique clinical features.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 03/2012; 209(4):819-35. · 13.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and its complication, pulmonary embolism, are frequent causes of disability and mortality. Although blood flow disturbance is considered an important triggering factor, the mechanism of DVT initiation remains elusive. Here we show that 48-hour flow restriction in the inferior vena cava (IVC) results in the development of thrombi structurally similar to human deep vein thrombi. von Willebrand factor (VWF)-deficient mice were protected from thrombosis induced by complete (stasis) or partial (stenosis) flow restriction in the IVC. Mice with half normal VWF levels were also protected in the stenosis model. Besides promoting platelet adhesion, VWF carries Factor VIII. Repeated infusions of recombinant Factor VIII did not rescue thrombosis in VWF(-/-) mice, indicating that impaired coagulation was not the primary reason for the absence of DVT in VWF(-/-) mice. Infusion of GPG-290, a mutant glycoprotein Ibα-immunoglobulin chimera that specifically inhibits interaction of the VWF A1 domain with platelets, prevented thrombosis in wild-type mice. Intravital microscopy showed that platelet and leukocyte recruitment in the early stages of DVT was dramatically higher in wild-type than in VWF(-/-) IVC. Our results demonstrate a pathogenetic role for VWF-platelet interaction in flow disturbance-induced venous thrombosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and the thienopyridine clopidogrel are established anti-platelet drugs that significantly reduce secondary cardiovascular events in patients with manifest atherosclerosis. However, their impact on atherosclerotic lesion development remains controversial. Four-week-old ApoE-deficient mice were randomly assigned to four groups receiving a cholesterol diet together with either ASA (5 mg/kg), or clopidogrel (25 mg/kg), or a combination of both ASA and clopidogrel, or vehicle for 8-12 weeks. Using intravital microscopy we found that daily administration of ASA in combination with clopidogrel reduces platelet thrombus formation following rupture of atherosclerotic plaque in vivo by approximately 50%. However, therapy with ASA or clopidogrel alone, or in combination for a period of 8-12 weeks had no significant effect on adhesion of platelets to dysfunctional endothelial cells or on atherosclerotic lesion formation in the aortic root or the carotid artery. In conclusion, anti-platelet therapy is effective in reducing platelet adhesion and subsequent thrombus formation following rupture of atherosclerotic plaque in vivo. However, our data do not support a role of either drug in the primary prevention of atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice.
Thrombosis and Haemostasis 02/2008; 99(1):190-5. · 5.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Constitutive egress of bone marrow (BM)-resident hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) into the blood is a well-established phenomenon, but the ultimate fate and functional relevance of circulating HSPCs is largely unknown. We show that mouse thoracic duct (TD) lymph contains HSPCs that possess short- and long-term multilineage reconstitution capacity. TD-derived HSPCs originate in the BM, enter the blood, and traffic to multiple peripheral organs, where they reside for at least 36 hr before entering draining lymphatics to return to the blood and, eventually, the BM. HSPC egress from extramedullary tissues into lymph depends on sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors. Migratory HSPCs proliferate within extramedullary tissues and give rise to tissue-resident myeloid cells, preferentially dendritic cells. HSPC differentiation is amplified upon exposure to Toll-like receptor agonists. Thus, HSPCs can survey peripheral organs and can foster the local production of tissue-resident innate immune cells under both steady-state conditions and in response to inflammatory signals.