[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper presents an optimized procedure for assessing an immune-mediated cytotoxicity, produced after the addition of human and baboon serum to transgenic porcine fibroblasts. This procedure is performed with the xCELLigence Real-Time Cell Analyzer (RTCA). The xCELLigence system measures the impedance variations in the culture media of a 96-well microelectronic plate, and shows the changes in cell number and morphology in a real-time plot. However, different factors need to be optimized before developing an RTCA assay. Thus, we studied the influence of several variables, such as the number of cells seeded, the time the cells were allowed to grow before the tests, the serum concentration and the addition of rabbit complement. The findings were confirmed by the WST-1 classical cytotoxicity test. The results showed that 7.5 × 10(3) cells seeded per well produced the adequate CI in 10 h. The area under the curve and the CImin versus concentration values showed a very high correlation index (r(2) = 0.966 and r(2) = 0.92 for the first 50 h after challenge, respectively), proving that CI variations are directly proportional to the quantity of serum added. The addition of complement resulted in lower CImin values. Therefore, both the cytolysis level with and without exogenous complement addition had to be assessed. There was a high correlation between the relative cytotoxicity assessed by WST-1 and the CI obtained by RTCA when exogenous complement was not added (r(2) = 0.827; p < 0.001). The correlation was average when rabbit complement was added (r(2) = 0.523; p = 0.046). In conclusion, culture conditions have an important influence on RTCA cytotoxicity assays.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some biomedical research procedures, such as organ xenotransplantation, usually require intensive hemotherapy. Knowledge of the whole phenotype of blood donor and graft could be useful in the field of xenotransplantation. Human and simian-type categories of blood groups have been established and they can be tested by standard methods used for human blood grouping. The aim of this work was to study the incidence of non-ABO blood group systems in different species of non-human primates, which are employed in biomedical research. The phenotype of Rh, Lewis, Kidd, Kell, MNSs, Lutheran, P and Duffy antigens was investigated in olive baboon (n = 48), chacma baboon (n = 9), Guinea baboon (n = 14), Rhesus macaque (n = 38) and squirrel monkey (n = 30) by using commercial microtyping cards. Kell, Lutheran, Kidd and Duffy antigens have been detected in all species, Rh in squirrel monkey, MNSs in rhesus macaque and squirrel monkey, and Lewis in baboon and rhesus macaque. There were differences in frequency and haemagglutination scores between species regardless of their gender and age. The main differences were found in squirrel monkey when compared with baboons and macaques. This typing system provides a tool to assess the presence of antigens in animals used for experimental procedures, such as xenotransplantation and xenotransfusion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using a percutaneous ecoguided injection system to obtain chimeric piglets through a less invasive and traumatic technique than previously reported.
The two types of human cells included umbilical cord blood mononuclear elements and mesenchymal stem cells cultured from bone marrow. Four sows at gestational day 50 were anesthetized. A needle was inserted through the skin and uterine wall to reach the peritoneal cavity of the fetuses under continuous ultrasound guidance. Fourteen piglets were injected with various cell concentrations.
All sows carried pregnancies to term yielding 69 piglets, among which 67 were alive and two mummified. Two piglets died during the first 48 hours of life. Chimerism was detected using flow cytometry and by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) to detect Alu gene in blood or tissues samples. The analysis detected blood chimerism in 13 piglets (21%) by flow cytometry and the presence of the human Alu gene in 33 (51%) by q-PCR. The results suggest cell trafficking between littermates after in utero injection.
Transcutaneous echo-guided injection succeeded to produce chimeric piglets without disadvantages to the sow or the fetuses and avoiding abortions or fetal death.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the effect of sodium heparin concentrations on antibody- and complement-mediated cytolysis by means of a real-time cell analyzer system (RTCA) investigating the complement regulation ability of heparin to reduce or prevent hyperacute in an in vitro model of pig-to-baboon xenotransplantation.
Fibroblasts isolated from the skin of two transgenic pigs were cultured in microelectronic 96-well plates for 9 hours. Then, we added 20 μL of normal sera from two healthy adult olive baboons (Papio anubis) or two volunteer healthy humans. Simultaneous cultures had added heparin at 3.5, 5, 7.5, 15, and 30 IU. Moreover, rabbit complement was added for the exogenous complement group (ExC) versus the other group only with the complement present in the sera as an endogenous complement group (EnC). Cellular cultures were monitored over 150 hours after challenge. With cellular index (CI) data recorded by the xCELLigence software system, we calculate area under the curve versus concentration (AUC) and minimum CI (CImin) versus concentration.
All cultures showed decreased CI after challenge with human or baboon sera. There was a high correlation for AUC (r(2) > 0.90) and CImin versus concentration (r(2) > 0.970) during the first 40 hours postchallenge among the EnC group, regardless of human or baboon sera. However, there was no correlation for AUC and CImin for the ExC group. There was a reduction of CImin related to increased heparin concentrations.
The addition of heparin did not reduce antibody- and complement-mediated cytolysis assessed in vitro by RTCA in pig-to-baboon compatibility assays.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this article is to assess the safety of intraspinal infusion of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMNCs) and, ultimately, to look for histopathological signs of cellular neurotrophism in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. We conducted an open single arm phase I trial. After 6 months observation, autologous BMNCs were infused into the posterior spinal cord funiculus. Safety was the primary endpoint and was defined as the absence of serious transplant-related adverse events. In addition, forced vital capacity (FVC), ALS-functional rating scale (ALS-FRS), Medical Research Council scale for assessment of muscle power (MRC), and Norris scales were assessed 6 and 3 months prior to the transplant and quarterly afterward for 1 year. Pathological studies were performed in case of death. Eleven patients were included. We did not observe any severe transplant-related adverse event, but there were 43 nonsevere events. Twenty-two (51%) resolved in ≤2 weeks and only four were still present at the end of follow-up. All were common terminology criteria for adverse events grade ≤2. No acceleration in the rate of decline of FVC, ALS-FRS, Norris, or MRC scales was observed. Four patients died on days 359, 378, 808, and 1,058 post-transplant for reasons unrelated to the procedure. Spinal cord pathological analysis showed a greater number of motoneurons in the treated segments compared with the untreated segments (4.2 ± 0.8 motoneurons per section [mns per sect] and 0.9 ± 0.3 mns per sect, respectively). In the treated segments, motoneurons were surrounded by CD90+ cells and did not show degenerative ubiquitin deposits. This clinical trial confirms not only the safety of intraspinal infusion of autologous BMNC in ALS patients but also provides evidence strongly suggesting their neurotrophic activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Products cryopreserved with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in stem cell transplant (SCT) often cause many adverse effects during their infusion (major cardiovascular events, dyspnea … even death). These are especially frequent in pediatric patients. We tested if a fully automated and closed wash procedure (Sepax S-100, Biosafe) allowed us to maintain the absolute CD34+ cell number, cell viability, and engraftment potential, decreasing the untoward reactions. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Forty-six washes of DMSO cryopreserved peripheral blood hematopoietic progenitor (HP) apheresis were studied. Blood aliquots were taken both after thawing and after washing to assess the total nucleated and CD34+ cell counts, as well as cell viability. The washed products were infused in 26 autologous SCTs (ASCTs). Results were compared with the 53 previous SCTs performed without DMSO removal. RESULTS: After washing there were no significant differences between the pre- and postwashing CD34+ cell counts (p = 0.08) or viability (p = 0.68). No significant differences were observed between washed and nonwashed infusions in relation to the day of the neutrophil (p = 0.46) and platelet (p = 0.26) engraftment. One adverse event, abdominal pain, occurred during the washed cells infusions. When compared with the 14 untoward reactions that took place during the nonwashed HP infusions, significance was reached (p = 0.00043). CONCLUSIONS: The automatic method described is effective in terms of CD34+ cell recovery and viability in ASCT. Moreover, Sepax decreased significantly the untoward reactions during the infusion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DOCK10 is a member of the dedicator of cytokinesis (DOCK) family of Rho GTPase activators preferentially expressed in lymphocytes. In this paper, we analyzed DOCK10 mRNA diversity produced because of alternative splicing. Alternative first coding exon usage led to 2 main protein-coding transcripts, DOCK10.1 and DOCK10.2. Full-length cDNA clones of both isoforms were obtained from both normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and mouse spleen for the first time for human DOCK10.1, mouse DOCK10.1, and mouse DOCK10.2. Human and mouse DOCK10.1 clones corresponded to the protein coding assemblies provided by the National Center for Biotechnology Information as Reference Sequences for DOCK10. Our analysis especially focused on human cDNA clones, of which 63% were alternatively spliced forms involving diverse exons and introns. DOCK10.1 expression was enriched in normal T cells, and DOCK10.2 expression was enriched in normal B cells and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B cells. Both isoforms were upregulated in response to interleukin-4 in B cells, both normal and CLL, but not in T cells. Our data suggest that cell-specific mechanisms regulate expression of the alternative first exon variants of DOCK10 in vertebrates.
Human immunology 07/2011; 72(7):531-7. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The density gradient centrifugation method was originally designed for the isolation of mononuclear peripheral blood cells and rapidly adapted to fractionate bone marrow (BM) cells. This method involves the use of gradient density solutions with low viscosity and low osmotic pressure that allows erythrocytes and more mature cells gravitate to the bottom at a density fraction superior to 1.080 g/dL; mononuclear cells (MNCs) held in the plasma-solution to interphase at a density between 1.053 and 1.073 g/dL; plasma, dilution medium and anticoagulant to occupy a density less than 1.050 g/dL and the fat cells to float due to their very low density. BM-mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are usually obtained after the separation and cultures of BM-MNCs from the plasma-solution interphase, which is traditionally considered the only source of progenitor cells (hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic). In this study evidences that MSCs could be isolated from the very low-density cells of the fat layer are presented. In addition, we demonstrated that the MSCs obtained from these cells have similar immunophenotypic characteristics, and similar proliferative and differentiation potential to those obtained from the MNCs at plasma-solution interphase. The method represents a simple and cost effective way to increase the MSCs yield from each BM donor, without the need to look for other sources, additional manipulation of cells, and risks of contamination or disturbances of the potential of differentiation. These cells might serve as a complementary source of MSCs to facilitate preclinical and clinical application in tissue engineering and cell therapy.
Stem cells and development 06/2011; 21(2):260-72. · 4.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Various strategies have been designed to assess in vitro donor-graft compatibility in pig-to-primate xenotransplantation models. Most of them are based on a cytolysis assessment by exposing donor tissue to host serum with investigations by flow cytometry, and photocolorimetric levels. The aim of this study was to analyze the difference in cytolysis produced by sera and plasma obtained using various anticoagulants, or containing high versus low levels of platelets.
The cytolysis trials were performed using an xCELLigence real-time cell analyzer (RTCA) in a cell model involving transgenic pig fibroblasts exposed to sera (S) or plasma obtained using EDTA, Li-heparin, or Na-heparin in combination with plasma containing high versus low content of platelets. Samples were obtained from two baboons and five volunteer human donors. Evolution of fibroblast cell growth was assessed by RTCA as the cell index (CI). After 9 hours of growth, cells were exposed to 20 μL of each sample. The minimum CI (CImin), time to CImin (TCImin), and time to reach the CI observed before compound addition (Trec) were recorded for each microwell.
The lowest CImin, highest TCImin, and Trec observed for EDTA plasma showed significant differences from other samples (P < .001).
On the basis of this study, using the RTCA assay, heparinized plasma produced complement inhibition and with undervaluation of the cytolysis reaction. EDTA plasma produced total death of most of cultures. The most accurate sample matrix seems to be serum.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To design a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) to assess gene expression for hCD55, hCD59, and hCD46 in polytransgenic (PT) pigs used as xenograft donors for orthotopic liver xenotransplantation using a pig-to-baboon model.
Three pairs of primers were designed using PrimerBlast and mRNA of hCD55, hCD59, and hCD46 sequences. Blood samples from five PT pigs (two males and three females) were used to isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by means of Ficoll gradients. After DNAase digestion of isolated mRNA, we synthesized cDNA. Using SYBR-Green chemistry of q-PCR, we constructed a standard curve. Two wild-type (WT) pigs were used as negative controls, and PBMCs from two healthy human volunteers as positive controls. The amplicon length was assessed by means of agarose gel electrophoresis and PCR products, sequenced.
We observed amplification for hCD55, hCD59, and hCD46 in all samples from the five PT pigs except for hCD55 and hCD46 in one male PT pig. Neither the human samples nor the negative controls showed amplification. The expected amplicon length was confirmed; sequencing showed high homology with human mRNA for the three proteins and no match with any known pig sequence.
The q-PCR allowed detection of animals with the highest gene expression for hCD55, hCD59, and hCD46 for xenograft donors in transplantation experiments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To validate the use of a microelectronic real-time cell analyzer system (RTCA) we developed a complement-mediated antibody cytotoxicity assay to investigate the compatibility of a graft and a recipient in pig-to-baboon xenotransplantation.
Fibroblasts isolated from the skin of five hCD55, hCD59, and hCD46 transgenic pigs (TP) were cultured in 96 microelectronic well plates for 17 hours. Then, we added to each microwell 20 μL of normal sera from nine healthy adult olive baboons (Papio anubis)-three males and six females. The evolution of the cell culture was assessed every 3 minutes during the pretreatment period, at 11 hours postaddition, and every 30 minutes from 12 to 96 hours. Simultaneously, we performed a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Fibroblasts from wild-type (WT) pigs were used as positive controls and microwells without serum addition from each TP as negative controls. The RTCA results were expressed as a normalized cellular index (NCI).
Differences were observed between the five TP fibroblasts and the WT fibroblasts, with greater cytotoxicity on WT cells. Among TP, a higher cytolytic level was observed in males than females. The MTT results correlated with NCI at different times, with the minimum NCI and with the time to for NCI recovery before serum addition. The correlation was lower than that previously reported in environmental toxicity assays.
RTCA allows a long-term assessment of the immunocytotoxic effect of baboon sera on pig cells, providing a suitable tool to perform compatibility tests for xenotransplantation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of cryopreservation in series of peripheral blood progenitor cells stratified by diagnosis, mobilization treatments, and cell concentration, as well as the accuracy of the control aliquots.
Viability and colony-forming unit-granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM), CD34+ cell, lymphocyte, monocyte, and granulocyte counts and recovery were analyzed in 397 leukapheresis procedures before freezing and after thawing. Data from control cryotubes were compared to those from infusing bags.
Cell viability decreased after thawing. Viability recovery was lower in cryotubes than in bags in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), in cyclophosphamide plus granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (Cy+G-CSF) mobilization, and in cell concentration of median or greater. Viability recovery in cryotube was higher in NHL (92.1%) than in Hodgkin's disease (HD; 87.3%) and in G-CSF (95.9%) than Cy+G-CSF mobilization (91.3%). The number of CD34+ cells decreased after thawing in total group, Cy+G-CSF mobilization, and cell concentration less than median subgroups. CD34+ cell recovery was higher in cryotubes (111.3%) than in bags (99.6%) in multiple myeloma (MM; p = 0.015). CFU-GM decreased after thawing in all groups. CFU-GM recovery was lower in cryotubes than in bags in MM (26.0% vs. 59.3%) and in Cy+G-CSF mobilization (49.8% vs. 76.3%). CFU-GM recovery in cryotubes was lower in MM compared with NHL (61.5%), HD (45.1%), and breast cancer (84.0%). Lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes showed differences in the subgroups.
Cryopreservation negatively impacts in cell viability, CD34+ cell recovery, granulocytes, and CFU-GM, although slight differences between the groups were observed. Cryotubes satisfactorily reflected the quality of the infused cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transplantation or transfusion with ABO disparity is a cause for rejection or for severe hemodynamic alterations. ABO groups in pigs are commonly an unknown variable, which has been previously assessed by means of hemagglutination tests or immunohistochemical procedures on tissues. Herein, we have reported a simple method using commercial microcards for human ABO typing. However, the reagents directly derived from human sera included in these cards can result in false determinations due to alpha-gal interference. The ABO groups of 19 wild-type pigs (Landrace x Large White) were assessed using 2 commercial cards: Human sera-based and monoclonal antibody-based cards. The human sera cards determined that 8 pigs belonged to the AB group and 11 to the B group. The monoclonal antibody cards determined that 8 pigs belonged to the A group and 11 to the O group. None of the pigs showed reactions to Rh1 antibodies. Because the B group has not been described in pigs, the reaction in human sera cards represented an interference with alpha-gal antigen, a molecule structurally similar to the B blood antigen. Thus, microtyping cards based on monoclonal antibodies provided simple, quick way to assess ABO groups in pigs used for xenotransplantation. ABO concordance should always be investigated for these types of procedures.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Large-surface or deep wounds often become senescent in the inflammatory or proliferation stages and cannot progress to reepithelialization. This failure makes intervention necessary to provide the final sealing epithelial layer. The best current treatment is autologous skin graft, although there are other choices such as allogenic or autologous skin substitutes and synthetic dressings. Amniotic membrane (AM) is a tissue of interest as a biological dressing due to its biological properties and immunologic characteristics. It has low immunogenicity and beneficial reepithelialization effects, with antiinflammatory, antifibrotic, antimicrobial, and nontumorigenic properties. These properties are related to its capacity to synthesize and release cytokines and growth factors. We report the use of AM as a wound dressing in two patients with large and deep traumatic wounds. Negative pressure wound therapy followed by AM application was capable of restoring skin integrity avoiding the need for skin graft reconstruction. AM induced the formation of a well-structured epidermis. To understand this effect, we designed some assays on human keratinocyte-derived HaCaT cells. AM treatment of HaCaT induced ERK1/2 and SAP/JNK kinases phosphorylation and c-jun expression, a gene critical for keratinocytes migration; however, it did not affect cell cycle distribution. These data suggest that AM substantially modifies the behavior of keratinocytes in chronic wounds, thereby allowing effective reepithelialization.
Wound Repair and Regeneration 07/2010; 18(4):368-77. · 2.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the presence of irregular xenoantibodies against human red blood cells (RBCs) in 6 primate species used in xenotransplantation and other experimental procedures.
Serum samples from 109 baboons of 4 different species (olive, chacma, sacred, and Guinea), 38 rhesus macaques, and 30 squirrel monkeys were tested for irregular xenoantibodies using an agglutination test using human RBCs of known phenotype for Rh, Kell, Kidd, Lewis, Lutheran, P1, and Duffy antigens, commercially available as RBC I, II, and III.
We found hemagglutination for RBC I in 49%, 22%, 100%, 57%, 32%, and 33% of olive, chacma, sacred, and Guinea baboons, rhesus macaques, and squirrel monkey, respectively. The frequency for RBC II was 49%, 50%, 100%, 57%, 37%, and 33%, respectively, and for RBC III was 56%, 37%, 100%, 79%, 34%, and 33%, respectively. There were differences in frequency depending on the sex of the rhesus macaques; all 3 RBCs tested were higher in the females: 44% vs 0%, P = .008; 48% vs 1%, P = .02, and 44% vs 9.1%, P = .04 for RBC I, II, and III, respectively. There were differences due to age in only olive baboons, and a higher frequency in younger animals compared with juvenile, subadult, and adult animals for all 3 human RBCs.
Assessment of irregular antibodies in the presence of primate serum should be taken into account during any experimental xenotransplantation protocol.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Splenic rupture (SR) is a rare adverse event observed in patients treated with G-CSF as a peripheral hematopoietic stem cell (PHSC) mobilizing agent, mostly in myeloma multiple and amiloidosis; to date, to our knowledge, it has not been previously described in plasma-cell leukemia (PCL). We report a case of a woman with PCL, who presented a SR after PHSC mobilization with Cyclophosphamide+G-CSF. The spleen removed showed hematopoietic foci and amiloid material. In the course of a second mobilization, 2 months after, the patient died from sepsis. We considered it important to report this case, in order to keep in mind the possibility of SR in patients with malignant gammopathy.
Journal of Clinical Apheresis 01/2010; 25(4):223-5. · 2.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cellular therapy has emerged as a new potential tool for curing a wide range of degenerative diseases and tissue necrosis. Embryonic stem cells possess potential for differentiation into a wide range of cell lineages, but the ethical issues associated with establishment of this human cell line have to be resolved prior to any use. The bone marrow (BM) is the usual source of adult stem cells for hematopoietic stem cell transplants and cellular therapy, but the BM harvest is a surgical procedure that requires general anesthesia or sedation, and there seems to be a reduction of the proliferative potential and differentiation capacity of the marrow mesenchymal stem cells in older donors. For these reasons there is an increasing interest in other sources of stem cells from adult and fetal tissues. The amniotic membrane (AM) or amnion is a tissue of particular interest because its cells possess characteristics of stem cells with multipotent differentiation ability, and because of low immunogenicity and easy procurement from the placenta, which is a discarded tissue after parturition, thus avoiding the current controversies associated with the use of human embryonic stem cells. Therefore, amniotic membrane has been proposed as a good candidate to be used in cellular therapy and regenerative medicine.
Histology and histopathology 01/2010; 25(1):91-8. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Given that pre-apheresis CD34(+) cell count (PA-CD34) predicts the apheresis' yield, a minimum of 5 to 20 PA-CD34/microl is required in many institutions to initiate cell collection. The aim of this study was to clarify whether large-volume-apheresis (LVA) could facilitate progenitor cell transplantation in patients with low PA-CD34. Apheresis was initiated in 226 patients, disregarding PA-CD34, at days: +5 in G-CSF, +10 in cyclophosphamide+G-CSF, and +15 to +20 in other chemotherapy+G-CSF mobilization, when leucocytes >2.5 x 10(9)/L. Four times the blood volume was processed. Patients were grouped according to their PA-CD34: >or=10/microl (group-A, n = 143); <10/microl but >or=5/microl (group-B, n = 40) and <5/microl (group-C, n = 43). No differences were found in diagnoses, gender, age, previous treatments or mobilization regimen between groups. Enough CD34(+) cells (>1.9 x 10(6)/kg) were obtained in 31 patients (72%) from group-C, although in this group two mobilizations were needed in 20 patients (46.5%), compared to 5 (3.5%) and 1 (2.5%) in groups A and B, respectively (P < 0.01). Evenly three apheresis or more were required in 28 patients (65.1%) from group-C, compared to 8 (5.6%) and 6 (15.0%) in groups A and B, respectively (P < 0.01). In conclusion LVA can facilitate autologous transplantation in poor-mobilizer-patients, low PA-CD34 should not be an inflexible exclusion factor.
Journal of Clinical Apheresis 01/2009; 24(1):12-7. · 2.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Dock or CZH proteins are a family of activators for Rho GTPase proteins. The Zizimin subfamily is composed of three members: Dock9, Dock10, and Dock11. We have identified DOCK10 as an interleukin-4 (IL4)-inducible gene in chronic lymphocytic leukemias (CLLs). Subsequently, we have obtained the full-length cDNA sequence, which encodes a 2180 amino acid protein. Dock9 (2069 amino acids) and Dock11 (2073 amino acids) share more identity between them (58%) than with Dock10 (52% and 50%, respectively). Among normal human tissues, DOCK10 and DOCK11 mRNAs were mainly expressed in peripheral blood (PB) leukocytes. Dock10 protein was expressed at similar levels in normal PB-B and PB-T cells. Dock10 protein levels were heterogeneous in CLLs. IL4 consistently increased Dock10 mRNA and protein levels in CLL and normal PB-B cells. In contrast, IL4 did not affect the levels of Dock10 expression in normal PB-T cells. IL4 neither increased DOCK9 or DOCK11 mRNA levels in CLL cells. Dock10 protein distributed in the cytoplasm and nucleus of CLL cells, and IL4 increased its expression in both cellular compartments. The rapid and distinctive induction of Dock10 expression by IL4 in CLL and normal PB-B cells suggests a role for Dock10 in IL4-induced B-cell activation. Dock10 could represent a point of convergence for IL4 signalling and small Rho GTPase function in B cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our goal was to determine the hemodynamic changes that are witnessed during the initial minutes of reperfusion of the graft in liver xenotransplantation from pig to baboon.
We studied a group of 12 baboons undergoing transplantation of a pig liver via the classic technique with arterial anastomosis to the aorta. The anesthesia technique was similar to that used in humans. Hemodynamic monitoring, due to the size of the recipient, consisted of heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and central venous pressure (CVP) recorded at the beginning and end of each of the three phases: preanhepatic (A1, A2), anhepatic (B1, B2), and neohepatic (C1 and C2). We aimed to maintain the following values by means of crystalloids, colloids, and blood derivates: HR >50 beats/minute; MAP >60 mm Hg; and CVP >10 mm Hg.
Both HR and CVP remained unchanged throughout the procedure. MAP droped briefly after vascular clamping (B1) but not on reperfusion (C1).
In cirrhotic patients there is an autonomic dysfunction, demonstrated as cardiovascular instability at times like the clamping of major vessels and reperfusion of the graft. On the other hand, the intact baboon has an intact nervous system. After vascular clamping, the sharp decrease in venous return lead to an adequate vasopressor response. Likewise, the extreme vasodilatation involved with reperfusion managed to maintain MAP above 70 mm Hg.