[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of metamizol in the presence of morphine in arthritic rats, after subcutaneous administration of the drugs, an easy, rapid, sensitive and selective analytical method was proposed and validated. The four main metamizol metabolites (4-methylaminoantipyrine, 4-aminoantipyrine, 4-acetylaminoantipyrine and 4-formylaminoantipyrine) were extracted from plasma samples (50-100μl) by a single solid-phase extraction method prior to reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection. Standard calibration graphs for all metabolites were linear within a range of 1-100μg/ml (r(2)≥0.99). The intra-day coefficients of variation (CV) were in the range of 1.3-8.4% and the inter-day CV ranged from 1.5 to 8.4%. The intra-day assay accuracy was in the range of 0.6-9.6% and the inter-day assay accuracy ranged from 0.9 to 7.5% of relative error. The lower limit of quantification was 1μg/ml for all metabolites using a plasma sample of 100μl. Plasma samples were stable at least for 4 weeks at -20°C. This method was found to be suitable for studying metamizol metabolites pharmacokinetics in arthritic rats, after simultaneous administration of metamizol and morphine, in single dose.
Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis 08/2012; 71:173-8. · 2.45 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether metamizol alters the pharmacokinetics of morphine and to determine the relationship between morphine plasma levels and antinociceptive effect produced after co-administration of drugs under acute and subchronic treatments using the pain-induced functional impairment model in rat (PIFIR model). Administration of morphine+metamizol under acute treatment produced a significantly higher antinociceptive effect than that obtained with morphine alone (P<0.05). This effect remained unaltered after subchronic treatments for 6 and 12 days. In addition, after the simultaneous administration of the drugs in a single dose, a pharmacokinetic interaction was found, which significantly (P<0.001) increased maximum plasma concentration (C(max)), concentration at 4h (C(4h)), partial areas under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to 4h (AUC(0-4)) and from zero to 24h (AUC(0-24)). Moreover, whereas plasma concentration of morphine markedly decreased up to 4h (C(4h)) after subchronic administration of the opioid, multiple dosing of the morphine+metamizol combination produced an accumulation of the drug in plasma (P<0.001). The increase observed in morphine plasma levels after co-administration of metamizol may be explained by a possible enzymatic inhibition of the glucuronosyl-transferase system involved in the metabolism of morphine. This study reveals both a pharmacodynamic and a pharmacokinetic interaction between morphine and metamizol, leading to an increased antinociceptive effect and a delay in tolerance development.
European journal of pharmacology 10/2010; 645(1-3):94-101. · 2.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to perform a reliable pharmacokinetic study of morphine during subchronic treatment in rats, an easy, rapid, sensitive and selective analytical method was proposed and validated. The analyte and internal standard (naloxone) were extracted from plasma samples (100 microL) by a single solid-phase extraction method prior to reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) along with electrochemical detection (ED). Standard calibration graphs were linear within a range of 3.5-1,000 ng/mL (r=0.999). The intra-day coefficients of variation (CV) were in the range of 5.8-8.5% at eight concentration levels (7-1,000 ng/mL) and the inter-day coefficient of variation ranged from 7.4 to 8.8%. The intra-day assay accuracy was in the range of -5-10% and the inter-day assay accuracy ranged from 3.0 to 9.3% of relative error (RE). The limit of quantification was 3.5 ng/mL using a plasma sample of 100 microL (15.8% of CV and 12.8% of RE). Plasma samples were stable for 2 months at -20 degrees C. This method was found to be suitable for pharmacokinetic studies in rats, after subcutaneous administration of morphine (5.6 mg/kg per day) in subchronic treatment for 6 and 12 days.
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 04/2006; 40(5):1172-8. · 2.95 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The in vitro dissolution of albendazole from three different commercially available products (200 mg tablets) was studied using U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) Apparatus 2 and USP Apparatus 4 in order to compare the release performance of the drug in two essentially different dissolution systems. For both cases, 0.1 N HCl was used as dissolution medium. Only the reference product and one of the generic products studied met the 80% USP 24 specification for albendazole dissolved at 30 min, using USP Apparatus 2. Although the reference product reached 80% of albendazole dissolved at 30 min when Apparatus 4 was used, the generic products' dissolution performance was markedly reduced in this system. Though dissolution rate was slower using Apparatus 4, the total quantity of albendazole dissolved from the reference product, represented by area under the dissolution profile, was practically the same regardless of the system used. Dissolution kinetics of albendazole was adequately described by Weibull's function for all the products. The dissolution time (t(d)) derived from data fitting to this function showed significant differences among the products studied. Data analysis based on analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed nonequivalence among the dissolution profiles of generic products compared with the reference product either with the dissolution vessel system or the flow-through cell, as well as nonequivalence among the dissolution profiles using both apparatuses with the same product. Though differences in the dissolution profiles for generic products against the reference product in both systems were found, USP Apparatus 4 showed higher discriminative capacity in differentiating the release characteristics of the products tested.
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy 09/2003; 29(7):777-84. · 1.54 Impact Factor