[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim:
To investigate the effects of titanium dioxide (TiO₂) nanoparticles (NPTiO₂) and microparticles (MPTiO₂) on the inflammatory response in the small intestine of mice.
Bl 57/6 male mice received distilled water suspensions containing TiO₂ (100 mg/kg body weight) as NPTiO₂ (66 nm), or MPTiO₂ (260 nm) by gavage for 10 d, once a day; the control group received only distilled water. At the end of the treatment the duodenum, jejunum and ileum were extracted for assessment of cytokines, inflammatory cells and titanium content. The cytokines interleukin (IL)-1b, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, IL-23, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), intracellular interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in segments of jejunum and ileum (mucosa and underlying muscular tissue). CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells were evaluated in duodenum, jejunum and ileum samples fixed in 10% formalin by immunohistochemistry. The titanium content was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry.
We found increased levels of T CD4+ cells (cells/mm²) in duodenum: NP 1240 ± 139.4, MP 1070 ± 154.7 vs 458 ± 50.39 (P < 0.01); jejunum: NP 908.4 ± 130.3, MP 813.8 ± 103.8 vs 526.6 ± 61.43 (P < 0.05); and ileum: NP 818.60 ± 123.0, MP 640.1 ± 32.75 vs 466.9 ± 22.4 (P < 0.05). In comparison to the control group, the groups receiving TiO₂ showed a statistically significant increase in the levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-12, IL-4, IL-23, TNF-α, IFN-γ and TGF-β. The cytokine production was more pronounced in the ileum (mean ± SE): IL-12: NP 33.98 ± 11.76, MP 74.11 ± 25.65 vs 19.06 ± 3.92 (P < 0.05); IL-4: NP 17.36 ± 9.96, MP 22.94 ± 7.47 vs 2.19 ± 0.65 (P < 0.05); IL-23: NP 157.20 ± 75.80, MP 134.50 ± 38.31 vs 22.34 ± 5.81 (P < 0.05); TNFα: NP 3.71 ± 1.33, MP 5.44 ± 1.67 vs 0.99 ± 019 (P < 0.05); IFNγ: NP 15.85 ± 9.99, MP 34.08 ± 11.44 vs 2.81 ± 0.69 (P < 0.05); and TGF-β: NP 780.70 ± 318.50, MP 1409.00 ± 502.20 vs 205.50 ± 63.93 (P < 0.05).
Our findings indicate that TiO₂ particles induce a Th1-mediated inflammatory response in the small bowel in mice.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 10/2012; 18(34):4729-4735. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v18.i34.4729 · 2.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on intestinal permeability (IP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in indomethacin-induced enteropathy, a well-known experimental model of Crohn's disease. Seventy-eight male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to receive indomethacin, indomethacin + UDCA, or vehicles. Indomethacin induced a significant increase in the fraction of urinary excretion of 51Cr-EDTA following oral administration (7.9 +/- 1.3 vs 2.3 +/- 0.2%; P < 0.05) and lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence in intestinal fragments ex vivo (10.1 +/- 1.9 vs 2.6 +/- 0.4 cpm x 10(3)/mg; P < 0.05) compared to controls. UDCA significantly reversed these effects (P < 0.05), without being incorporated in biliary bile acid composition (HPLC analysis). These findings support a local protective effect of UDCA in experimental ileitis by the modulation of intestinal barrier dysfunction and oxidative stress. In short, they provide insights into mechanisms of action of UDCA in intestinal inflammation and a new perspective on the treatment of Crohn's disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) enteropathy is a complex process involving the uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX). Rofecoxib, a selective inhibitor of COX-2, has shown less gastric damage, but the same beneficial effect is not clear in the case of the small bowel. Fifty-seven male Wistar rats (250-350 g) were divided into three groups (N=19 each) to evaluate the effect of this NSAID on the rat intestine. The groups received 2.5 mg/kg rofecoxib, 7.5 mg/kg indomethacin or water with 5% DMSO (control) given as a single dose by gavage 24 h before the beginning of the experiment. A macroscopic score was used to quantify intestinal lesions and intestinal permeability was measured using [51Cr]-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid ([51Cr]-EDTA). The extent of intestinal lesion, indicated by a macroscopic score, was significantly lower when rofecoxib was administered compared to indomethacin (rofecoxib=0.0 vs indomethacin=63.6 +/- 25.9; P<0.05) and did not differ from control. The intestinal permeability to [51Cr]-EDTA was significantly increased after indomethacin (control=1.82 +/- 0.4 vs indomethacin=9.12 +/- 0.8%; P<0.0001), but not after rofecoxib, whose effect did not differ significantly from control (control=1.82 +/- 0.4 vs rofecoxib=2.17 +/- 0.4%; ns), but was significantly different from indomethacin (indomethacin=9.12 +/- 0.8 vs rofecoxib=2.17 +/- 0.4%; P<0.001). In conclusion, the present data show that rofecoxib is safer than indomethacin in rats because it does not induce macroscopic intestinal damage or increased intestinal permeability.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 03/2004; 37(3):333-6. DOI:10.1590/S0100-879X2004000300007 · 1.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) enteropathy is complex. It involves uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation which alters the intercellular junction and increases intestinal permeability with consequent intestinal damage. Metronidazole diminishes the inflammation induced by indomethacin but the mechanisms remain speculative. A direct effect on luminal bacteria has traditionally been thought to account for the protective effect of metronidazole. However, a protective effect of metronidazole on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation has never been tested.
To assess the protective effect of metronidazole on mitochondrial uncoupling induced by indomethacin and also on the increased intestinal permeability and macroscopic damage.
The protective effect of metronidazole was evaluated in rats given indomethacin; a macroscopic score was devised to quantify intestinal lesions, and intestinal permeability was measured by means of (51)Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. The protective effect of metronidazole against mitochondrial uncoupling induced by indomethacin was assessed using isolated coupled rat liver mitochondria obtained from rats pretreated with metronidazole or saline.
Metronidazole significantly reduced the macroscopic intestinal damage and increase in intestinal permeability induced by indomethacin; furthermore, at the mitochondrial level, it significantly reduced the increase in oxygen consumption in state 4 induced by indomethacin and caused less reduction of the respiratory control rate.
Our study confirmed the beneficial effects of metronidazole on intestinal damage and intestinal permeability, and demonstrated, for the first time, a direct protective effect of metronidazole on uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation caused by NSAIDs.