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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the long-term follow-up of surviving offspring after antenatal treatment for fetal or neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT).
Fifty children at risk of FNAIT were antenatally treated with maternal intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) (n=11), IVIG with intrauterine platelet transfusions (IUPT) (n=26) or IUPT alone (n=9). In four cases (n=4), only fetal blood sampling (FBS) was performed. One child died in the neonatal period and one was lost to follow up.
The remaining 48 children, aged 1.3-11.6 years (median 5.1 years), were given both general and neurological examinations and assessed on their development and susceptibility for infections or atopic constitution. In addition, immunoglobulin levels were measured in 17 infants, aged 5 years and older.
Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) was not observed. The general health and neurodevelopmental outcome in the children was comparable to a normal Dutch population. Children not exposed to maternal IVIG treatment had significantly more infections and hearing problems than children exposed to IVIG treatment or the normal population. Immunoglobulin G, A and M levels were within the normal range, independent of treatment and severity of FNAIT. A high IgE level was more frequently seen in children exposed to IVIG, but did not result in clinical consequences such as allergy or atopy.
Antenatal treatment of children for FNAIT did not affect general health or neurodevelopmental outcome. In particular, exposure to IVIG in utero showed no adverse effect on the clinical outcome of these children.
Early Human Development 11/2004; 80(1):65-76. · 2.02 Impact Factor
Pediatric Research 01/1999; 45. · 2.67 Impact Factor
Pediatric Research 01/1998; 43. · 2.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To describe the outcome for 92 fetuses treated between May 1987 and January of 1993 with intrauterine (intravascular) transfusions for severe hemolytic disease in comparison with a high-risk and a healthy control group.
Information on the perinatal period was obtained from the patient records. The children regularly attended the outpatient clinic, and a general pediatric examination was performed on each visit. The psychometer development of the child until age 4 1/2 years was assessed according to Gesell. At the age of 5 years, the adaptation part of the Denver Developmental Screening Test and a Dutch-language test were used. A neurologic examination was performed according to Touwen.
In our study, 77 (83.7%) of 92 fetuses were born alive after intravascular transfusions. The overall survival rate was 79.3%. The follow-up group included 69 infants, with an age range of 6 months to 6 years. Correlation between antenatal and perinatal features showed a significant negative relationship between the number of intrauterine transfusions and the duration of phototherapy (p = 0.002). The probability that neurologic abnormalities would occur was significantly greater when perinatal asphyxia had been present (p < 0.05) and with a lower cord hemoglobin level at birth (p = 0.03). The total number of children with disabilities was 10.1% (7/69).
The neurodevelopmental outcome for the group of survivors compared favorably with a group of high-risk, very low birth weight infants (10.1% to 18%), and less favorably with a healthy control group (10.1% to 6%).
Journal of Pediatrics 09/1997; 131(3):373-80. · 4.04 Impact Factor