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ABSTRACT: Acute pulmonary embolism (APE) is a life-threatening disease. Mortality in APE still remains very high in spite of progress in diagnostic tools. Mortality rate is about 30% in patients with unrecognised APE. APE is one of the main causes of in-hospital mortality.
To asses management of patients with APE in the Małopolska region.
This registry consists of 205 consecutive patients who were hospitalised in 6 cardiology departments between 1 January 2005 and 30 September 2007, with the mean age of 65.1 +/- 15.3 years (124 females and 81 males). Mean hospitalisation duration 14.6 days (1-52 days).
During hospitalisation 23 (11.2%) patients died. Complications (death, cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest, use of catecholamines, respiratory therapy and ventilation) during in-hospital stay were observed in 57 (27.8%) patients. Fifty-three patients were haemodynamically unstable (cardiogenic shock or hypotension). The troponin I or T level was assessed in 147 (71.7%) patients and in 50 (34.0%) was positive. In patients with positive troponin we observed 11 (22.0%) deaths, while in patients with normal troponin T or I level 6 (6.2%) deaths occurred. In patients with normal blood pressure we observed a significant difference in mortality in patients with elevated vs. normal troponin level (14.3 vs. 2.5%, p = 0.02). Thrombolytic therapy was used in 20 (9.8%) patients. In patients treated with thrombolytic therapy 9 (45%) deaths were observed. We divided patients according to the ESC 2008 guidelines risk stratification. The 'non-high risk' group consisted of 152 (74.1%) patients, and mortality was 3.9%. The 'high-risk' group consisted of 53 (26.8%) patients. The 'non-high risk' group was divided into the following subgroups: 1. moderate-high (with 2 risk factors: both RV dysfunction and positive injury markers) mortality - 8.1%; 2. moderate subgroup with one risk factor, mortality - 3.6%; 3. low risk - no risk factors - 0% mortality.
1. In our registry mortality rate in patients with APE was 11%. 2. In about 30% of patients APE was under mask of acute coronary syndrome or syncope, 34% of patients had elevated troponin level, and 30% of patients had complication during hospitalisation. 3. In patients treated with thrombolytics mortality rate was 45%. 4. Reperfusion strategy (trombolysis or embolectomy) in the high risk group was used in only 41% of patients. 5. Elevated troponin level in normotensive patient was associated with 4-fold times higher risk of death. 6. New risk stratification according to the ESC guidelines 2008 correctly predicts prognosis in everyday clinical practise.
Kardiologia polska 08/2009; 67(7):735-41. · 0.54 Impact Factor