Luigi Leonardo Palese

Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Apulia, Italy

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Publications (22)55.26 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Heme-copper oxidases are the terminal enzymes in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic respiratory chains. They catalyze the reduction of dioxygen to water and convert redox energy into a transmembrane electrochemical proton gradient during their catalytic activity. Heme-copper oxidases show substantial structure similarity, but the spectroscopic and biochemical analyses indicate that these enzymes contain diverse prosthetic groups and use different substrates (i.e. cytochrome c or quinol). Due to difficulties in membrane proteins crystallization, there is no definitive structural data about the quinol oxidase physiological substrate binding site(s). In this paper we propose an atomic structure model for the menaquinol:O2 oxidoreductase of Bacillus subtilis (QOx.aa3). Furthermore, a multi-step computational approach is used to predict residues involved in the menaquinol/menaquinone binding within B. subtilis QOx.aa3 as well as those involved in quinol/quinone binding within E. coli QOx.bo3. Two specific sequence motifs, 70-RGGxDx4RxQx3Px3Fx[D/N/E/Q]x2HYNE-97 and 159-GGSPx2GWx2Y-169 (B. subtilis numbering), were highlighted within QOx from Bacillales. Specific residues within the first and the second sequence motif participate in the high and low affinity substrate binding sites, respectively. By comparative analysis two analogous motifs, 71-RGFxDx4RxQx8[Y/F]xPPHHYDQ-101 and 163-GEFx3GWx2Y-173 (E. coli numbering) were proposed to be involved in Enterobacteriales/Rhodobacterales/Rhodospirillales QOx high and low affinity quinol derivative binding sites. Results and models are discussed in the context of the literature data.
    Biochemical Journal 04/2014; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A comparative analysis of terminal respiratory enzymes has been performed on four strains of Bacillus clausii used for preparation of a European probiotic. These four strains originated most probably from a common ancestor through early selection of stable clones for industrial propagation. They exhibit a low level of intra-specific diversity and a high degree of genomic conservation, making them an attractive model to study the different bioenergetics behaviours of alkaliphilic bacilli. The analysis of the different bioenergetics responses has been carried out revealing striking differences among the strains. Two out of the four strains have shown a functional redundancy of the terminal part of the respiratory chain. The biochemical data correlate with the expression level of the mRNA of cytochrome c oxidase and quinol oxidase genes (heme-copper type). The consequences of these different bioenergetics behaviours are also discussed.
    FEBS Open Bio. 01/2014;
  • Luigi Leonardo Palese
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    ABSTRACT: It is well known that, in some situations, principal component analysis (PCA) carried out on molecular dynamics data results in the appearance of cosine-shaped low index projections. Because this is reminiscent of the results obtained by performing PCA on a multidimensional Brownian dynamics, it has been suggested that short-time protein dynamics is essentially nothing more than a noisy signal. Here we use Random Matrix Theory to analyze a series of short-time molecular dynamics experiments which are specifically designed to be simulations with high cosine content. We use as a model system the protein apoCox17, a mitochondrial copper chaperone. Spectral analysis on correlation matrices allows to easily differentiate random correlations, simply deriving from the finite length of the process, from non-random signals reflecting the intrinsic system properties. Our results clearly show that protein dynamics is not really Brownian also in presence of the cosine-shaped low index projections on principal axes.
    Biophysical Chemistry 01/2014; · 2.28 Impact Factor
  • Fabrizio Bossis, Luigi L Palese
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    ABSTRACT: Development of extracellular plaques characteristic of Alzheimer's disease is related to aggregation of amyloid peptides. The Aβ-42 peptide is the most aggregation prone species, and some missense mutant forms increase this aggregation ability. Due to its poor solubility as monomer in aqueous solutions, Aβ-42 conformational transitions in water have been largely investigated by molecular dynamics. Here we report an all-atom molecular dynamics analysis of the Aβ-42 peptide in aqueous environment using as starting conformation a structure obtained in an isotropic, low-polarity medium, representing a plausible model for the membrane-bound species. While previous studies commonly show that Aβ-42 is largely unstructured in aqueous solution, here we report that this peptide can adopt partially folded structures. Importance of ionic strength has been also investigated, showing that at physiological ionic strength condition a loop stabilizing electrostatic interaction involving Lys28 builds-up. In addition, beside stable α-helix structures, we observe the appearance of 310 helix, similar to what reported experimentally for the Aβ-40 species. The effect of E22Q (Dutch) mutation in high ionic strength condition has been explored. We show that this mutation has a dramatic impact on the Aβ-42 structure. Instead of a partially folded, but extended, conformation obtained with the wild type, the E22Q assumes a two-helix collapsed one due to the clustering of hydrophobic residues.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 09/2013; · 4.66 Impact Factor
  • Luigi Leonardo Palese
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    ABSTRACT: Biological functions are intimately rooted in biopolymer dynamics. It is commonly accepted that proteins can be considered as complex systems, but the origin of such complexity is still not fully understood. Moreover, it is still not really clear if proteins are true complex systems or complicated ones. Here, molecular dynamics simulations on a two helix bundle protein have been performed, and protein trajectories have been analyzed by using correlation functions in the frequency domain. We show that even a simple protein exhibits the hallmarks of complex systems. Moreover, the molecular bases of this complex behavior are possessed completely by the protein itself, because such complexity emerges without considering the solvent explicitly. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Complexity, 2012
    Complexity 01/2013; 18(3). · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report changes of the content of anionic phospholipids in Bacillus subtilis in response to hypoxic conditions and inhibition of terminal respiration. Cardiolipin accumulates rapidly when bacteria are suspended in non-growth medium under reduced aeration or exposed to the inhibitor cyanide; the increase of cardiolipin occurs at the expense of its precursor phosphatidylglycerol and is temperature-dependent. Depending on the extent of hypoxic stress, membranes containing different levels of cardiolipin can be isolated from B. subtilis cells. The NADH oxidase activity in cardiolipin-enriched membranes is cyanide-resistant; furthermore O2 consumption measurements indicated that cardiolipin-enriched cells are resistant to cyanide. Results point out a possible interdependence between the effect of cyanide on cardiolipin metabolism and the effect of cardiolipin on the effectiveness of cyanide inhibition.
    FEBS open bio. 01/2013; 3:151-5.
  • Luigi Leonardo Palese, Fabrizio Bossis
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    ABSTRACT: Even if systems thinking is not new in biology, rationalizing the explosively growing amount of knowledge has been the compelling reason for the sudden rise and spreading of systems biology. Based on 'omics' data, several genome-scale metabolic networks have been reconstructed and validated. One of the most striking aspects of complex metabolic networks is the pervasive power-law appearance of metabolite connectivity. However, the combinatorial diversity of some classes of compounds, such as lipids, has been scarcely considered so far. In this work, a lipid-extended human mitochondrial metabolic network has been built and analyzed. It is shown that, considering combinatorial diversity of lipids and multipurpose enzymes, an intimate connection between membrane lipids and oxidative phosphorilation appears. This finding leads to some biomedical considerations on diseases involving mitochondrial enzymes. Moreover, the lipid-extended network still shows power-law features. Power-law distributions are intrinsic to metabolic network organization and evolution. Hubs in the lipid-extended mitochondrial network strongly suggest that the "RNA world" and the "lipid world" hypothesis are both correct.
    Bio Systems 04/2012; 109(2):151-8. · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper allosteric interactions in protonmotive heme aa(3) terminal oxidases of the respiratory chain are dealt with. The different lines of evidence supporting the key role of H(+)/e(-) coupling (redox Bohr effect) at the low spin heme a in the proton pump of the bovine oxidase are summarized. Results are presented showing that the I-R54M mutation in P. denitrificans aa(3) oxidase, which decreases by more than 200mV the E(m) of heme a, inhibits proton pumping. Mutational amino acid replacement in proton channels, at the negative (N) side of membrane-inserted prokaryotic aa(3) oxidases, as well as Zn(2+) binding at this site in the bovine oxidase, uncouples proton pumping. This effect appears to result from alteration of the structural/functional device, closer to the positive, opposite (P) surface, which separates pumped protons from those consumed in the reduction of O(2) to 2 H(2)O.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 11/2011; 1817(4):558-66. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microbial dynamics and enzymatic activities of activated sludge processes are not completely understood yet. A better understanding about the biology is indispensable for further process optimization. Since proteins play a key role as catalysts in sludge processes, a protocol for protein extraction and analysis by 2-D PAGE was established. It is based on phenol extraction of alkaline extracts and on a subsequent precipitation with ammonium sulphate. 2-D protein patterns obtained from different sludges collected from membrane bioreactors showed--besides common spots--significant differences. Selected proteins were identified with nano-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. All membrane biological reactor (MBR) sludge samples investigated in this study contained elastase 3A, which implies that this human serine protease is a significant constituent of municipal wastewater. Although the identification of proteins from ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea was expected, the detection of a protein with homology to the marine bacterium Saprospira grandis in MBR1 was surprising.
    Proteomics 07/2011; 11(13):2738-44. · 4.43 Impact Factor
  • Chemistry and Physics of Lipids - CHEM PHYS LIPIDS. 01/2011; 164.
  • Fabrizio Bossis, Luigi L Palese
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    ABSTRACT: In this work low temperature molecular dynamics simulations of cytochrome c oxidase are used to predict an experimentally observable, namely Mössbauer spectra width. Predicted lineshapes are used to model Lorentzian doublets, with which published cytochrome c oxidase Mössbauer spectra were simulated. Molecular dynamics imposed constraints to spectral lineshapes permit to obtain useful information, like the presence of multiple chemical species in the binuclear center of cytochrome c oxidase. Moreover, a benchmark of quality for molecular dynamic simulations can be obtained. Despite the overwhelming importance of dynamics in electron-proton transfer systems, limited work has been devoted to unravel how much realistic are molecular dynamics simulations results. In this work, molecular dynamics based predictions are found to be in good agreement with published experimental spectra, showing that we can confidently rely on actual simulations. Molecular dynamics based deconvolution of Mössbauer spectra will lead to a renewed interest for application of this approach in bioenergetics.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 01/2011; 404(1):438-42. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727 is an aerobic actinomycete, industrially important as a producer of the glycopeptide A40926, which is used as a precursor of the semi-synthetic antibiotic dalbavancin. Previous studies showed that the production of A40926 is depressed by calcium, but promoted by l-glutamine or l-asparagine. In this study, the protein expression changes of Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727 in these two different growth and antibiotic-production conditions have been investigated by two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. Few protein spots show statistically significant expression changes, and, among this group of proteins, malate dehydrogenase (MDH) shows a significant decrease in the overproduction condition. The decrease of MDH is of particular interest because it is the first described significant change in the expression levels of enzymes of the central metabolism related with A40926 overproduction.
    FEMS Microbiology Letters 10/2007; 274(1):35-41. · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Membranes having an a high content of cardiolipin were isolated from an extremely halophilic archaeon Halorubrum sp. Absorbance difference spectra of detergent-solubilized plasma membranes reduced by dithionite suggested the presence of b-type cytochromes. Non-denaturing gel electrophoresis revealed only one fraction having TMPD-oxidase activity in which cardiolipin was the major lipid component. The electroeluted fraction showed a cytochrome c oxidase activity characterized by the reduced minus oxidized difference spectra as a terminal heme-copper oxidase. The cytochrome c oxidase activity of the archaeal cardiolipin-rich membranes was inhibited by the cardiolipin-specific fluorescent marker 10-N-nonyl acridine orange (NAO) in a dose-dependent manner. The results indicate that an archaeal analogue of cardiolipin is tightly associated to archaeal terminal oxidases and is required for its optimal functioning.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 04/2007; 354(3):795-801. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727 is a poorly characterized actinomycete, producer of the glycopeptide antibiotic A40926. In this study, the nucleotide sequence of the atp operon coding for F1F0-ATP synthase of Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727 was determined. It consisted of ten open reading frames arranged in the order atpI (encoding the i protein), orfX, atpB (a subunit), atpE (c subunit), atpF (b subunit), atpH (delta subunit), atpA (alpha subunit), atpG (gamma subunit), atpD (beta subunit) and atpC (epsilon subunit). The orfX coded for a putative small hydrophobic 71 amino acid peptide of unknown function related to several bacterial permeases. Its presence appeared to be a distinctive feature of the atp operon of phylogenetically distant actinobacteria. Transcription of the atp operon was evaluated. The results of northern blot and RT-PCR experiments demonstrated that the atp genes were co-transcribed into a single polycistronic mRNA. Real-time RT-PCR data provided evidence showing that transcription of the atp operon was biphasic during Nonomuraea growth. The amount of the atpD transcript decreased at the end of the exponential growth phase, and then moderately increased during the early stationary phase when, in contrast, the levels of ctaC, encoding the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II, progressively decreased. Western blot analysis confirmed that ATP synthase was also present in the membrane during the stationary phase. These results together with previous data demonstrate that oligomycin-sensitive ATP-driven proton pumping activity remained constant in the stationary phase; in contrast, the activity and cytochrome content of the respiratory enzymes became negligible.
    Research in Microbiology 10/2006; 157(7):675-83. · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Actinomadura sp. ATCC 39727 produces the glycopeptide antibiotic A40926, structurally similar to teicoplanin, with significant activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae and precursor of the semi-synthetic antibiotic dalbavancin. In this study the production of A40926 by Actinomadura under a variety of growth conditions was investigated. The use of chemically defined mineral media allowed us to analyze the influence of carbon and nitrogen sources, phosphate, ammonium and calcium on the growth and the antibiotic productivity of Actinomadura. We confirm recent data [Gunnarsson et al. (2003) J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 30:150-156] that low initial concentrations of phosphate and ammonium are beneficial for growth and A40926 production, and we provide new evidence that the production of A40926 is depressed by calcium, but promoted when L-glutamine or L-asparagine are used as nitrogen sources instead of ammonium salts.
    Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 12/2004; 65(6):671-7. · 3.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cooperative linkage of solute binding at separate binding sites in allosteric proteins is an important functional attribute of soluble and membrane bound hemoproteins. Analysis of proton/electron coupling at the four redox centers, i.e. Cu(A), heme a, heme a(3) and Cu(B), in the purified bovine cytochrome c oxidase in the unliganded, CO-liganded and CN-liganded states is presented. These studies are based on direct measurement of scalar proton translocation associated with oxido-reduction of the metal centers and pH dependence of the midpoint potential of the redox centers. Heme a (and Cu(A)) exhibits a cooperative proton/electron linkage (Bohr effect). Bohr effect seems also to be associated with the oxygen-reduction chemistry at the heme a(3)-Cu(B) binuclear center. Data on electron transfer in cytochrome c oxidase are also presented, which, together with structural data, provide evidence showing the occurrence of direct electron transfer from Cu(A) to the binuclear center in addition to electron transfer via heme a. A survey of structural and functional data showing the essential role of cooperative proton/electron linkage at heme a in the proton pump of cytochrome c oxidase is presented. On the basis of this and related functional and structural information, variants for cooperative mechanisms in the proton pump of the oxidase are examined.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 08/2004; 1658(1-2):95-105. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have characterized the respiratory system of the aerobic actinomycete Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727. The plasma membrane of the microorganism is shown to contain a protonmotive respiratory chain and H+-ATPase. The respiratory chain is made up of a rotenone-sensitive NADH-quinone oxidoreductase, a four subunits aa3-type cytochrome c oxidase and a bc1 complex. The H+-ATPase is characterized as an F0F1-type on the basis of its sensitivity to specific inhibitors; the enzyme is also inhibited by mM concentrations of Ca2+. The activity of the respiratory chain increases during the exponential growth phase, but is depressed in the stationary phase. The H+-ATPase activity reaches, as the respiratory chain, a maximal activity at the end of the exponential growth phase and then remains constant in the stationary phase.
    FEMS Microbiology Letters 12/2003; 228(2):233-9. · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have characterized the respiratory system of the aerobic actinomycete Nonomuraea sp. ATCC 39727. The plasma membrane of the microorganism is shown to contain a protonmotive respiratory chain and H+-ATPase. The respiratory chain is made up of a rotenone-sensitive NADH-quinone oxidoreductase, a four subunits aa3-type cytochrome c oxidase and a bc1 complex. The H+-ATPase is characterized as an F0F1-type on the basis of its sensitivity to specific inhibitors; the enzyme is also inhibited by mM concentrations of Ca2+. The activity of the respiratory chain increases during the exponential growth phase, but is depressed in the stationary phase. The H+-ATPase activity reaches, as the respiratory chain, a maximal activity at the end of the exponential growth phase and then remains constant in the stationary phase.
    FEMS Microbiology Letters 10/2003; 228(2):233 - 239. · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A study is presented on the coupling of electron transfer with proton transfer at heme a and Cu(A) (redox Bohr effects) in carbon monoxide inhibited cytochrome c oxidase isolated from bovine heart mitochondria. Detailed analysis of the coupling number for H(+) release per heme a, Cu(A) oxidized (H(+)/heme a, Cu(A) ratio) was based on direct measurement of the balance between the oxidizing equivalents added as ferricyanide to the CO-inhibited fully reduced COX, the equivalents of heme a, Cu(A), and added cytochrome c oxidized and the H(+) released upon oxidation and all taken up back by the oxidase upon rereduction of the metal centers. One of two reductants was used, either succinate plus a trace of mitochondrial membranes (providing a source of succinate-c reductase) or hexaammineruthenium(II) as the chloride salt. The experimental H(+)/heme a, Cu(A) ratios varied between 0.65 and 0.90 in the pH range 6.0-8.5. The pH dependence of the H(+)/heme a, Cu(A) ratios could be best-fitted by a function involving two redox-linked acid-base groups with pK(o)-pK(r) of 5.4-6.9 and 7.3-9.0, respectively. Redox titrations in the same samples of the CO-inhibited oxidase showed that Cu(A) and heme a exhibited superimposed E'(m) values, which decreased, for both metals, by around 20 mV/pH unit increase in the range 6.0-8.5. A model in which oxido-reduction of heme a and Cu(A) are both linked to the pK shifts of the two acid-base groups, characterized by the analysis of the pH dependence of the H(+)/heme a, Cu(A) ratios, provided a satisfactory fit for the pH dependence of the E'(m) of heme a and Cu(A). The results presented are consistent with a primary involvement of the redox Bohr effects shared by heme a and Cu(A) in the proton-pumping activity of cytochrome c oxidase.
    Biochemistry 06/2000; 39(21):6373-9. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Various protolytic residues in subunit I of aa3-600 quinol oxidase of the aerobic Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis were mutagenized to nonpolar residues. Two of the mutations, Y284F and K304L, impaired the bioenergetic function of the microorganism. The Y284F mutation suppressed the electron-transfer activity of quinol oxidase and altered its interaction with CO and H2O2, thus showing destruction of the binuclear domain as observed for the bo3 quinol oxidase of Escherichia coli. The K304L mutation did not alter significantly the redox activity of the oxidase and its interaction with CO and H2O2 but suppressed the proton pumping activity of the enzyme. These results show that the K304 residue, which is invariantly conserved (as K or R) in practically all the sequences of the heme-copper oxidases so far available (around 100), is essential for the proton pumping activity of the oxidase.
    Biochemistry 03/1999; 38(8):2287-94. · 3.38 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

109 Citations
55.26 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999–2014
    • Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro
      • • Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche ed Oncologia Umana (DIMO)
      • • Department of Chemistry
      Bari, Apulia, Italy
  • 2004–2011
    • Università degli studi di Foggia
      • Department of Biomedical Science
      Foggia, Apulia, Italy
  • 2006
    • National Research Council
      • Institute of Biomembrane and Bioenergetics IBBE
      Roma, Latium, Italy