[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ginkgo biloba has been shown to have chronic memory enhancing effects in healthy subjects and patients with dementia. There is limited research on the acute nootropic effects of Ginkgo biloba in humans. The current study aimed to examine the acute effects of Ginkgo biloba (120 mg) on memory functioning in healthy older volunteers using the cognitive drug research (CDR) battery of memory tests and the Rey auditory verbal learning task (AVLT). The study was a double-blind placebo-controlled design, with each participant tested under both placebo and Ginkgo biloba treatment conditions. Testing was conducted pre- and 90 min post-drug administration for each treatment condition. Treatment conditions were separated by a 7 day wash out period. No acute effects of Ginkgo biloba were found for any of the memory tests examined. The findings suggest that 120 mg of Ginkgo biloba has no acute nootropic effects in healthy older humans.
Human Psychopharmacology Clinical and Experimental 02/2002; 17(1):45-9. · 2.10 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Selective cholinergic receptor agonists and antagonists have been shown to modulate inspection time, a measure of speed of early information processing.
The present study aimed to examine the effects of globally increasing cholinergic function with the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil on inspection time.
Fourteen healthy subjects participated in a randomised double-blind, placebo controlled trial in which all subjects were tested under either acute placebo or donepezil (5 mg) treatment conditions. Testing was conducted pre- and 90 min post-drug administration.
There was a significant decrease in inspection time in the donepezil condition compared to the placebo condition (F = 12.86; P < 0.01).
The decrease or improvement of inspection time following donepezil administration is consistent with the role of the cholinergic system in modulating speed of information processing, and adds evidence that inspection time may serve as a physiological index of the integrity of the cholinergic system.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Psychological and immunological responses of cancer patients to a psychosocial intervention program will be assessed over time. Previously it has been proposed that there are two large divisions in cancer histology (type I and II) and that the psychobiology of patients will vary accordingly.
Medical Hypotheses 05/2001; 56(4):480-2. · 1.05 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study reviewed the occurrence of gall bladder carcinoma in patients who underwent a cholecystectomy for gallstone disease.
A retrospective study of demographical and clinical information for patients who underwent a cholecystectomy and operative cholangiogram for gallstones predominantly in three major hospitals located in the northern area of Melbourne was carried out.
Gall bladder carcinomas were observed in 14 patients (3.2%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8-5.3%) consisting of 11 women and three men of median age 78.5 years (interquartile range: 77-81) from a series of 439 patients with a male-to-female ratio of 1-2. The results of the present study show that primary carcinoma of the gall bladder in this descriptive retrospective cohort was always associated with single or multiple cholesterol gallstones that were impacting on the gall bladder wall. Cholesterol 'solitaire' gallstones were ovoid in shape with diameters > 3 cm along their longest axis, whereas multiple cholesterol gallstones varied in size and number from two or three large stones (1-2 cm), to numerous smaller stones (variable size to 0.5 cm). No patient with gall bladder carcinoma had either brown or black pigment gallstones.
It is postulated that gall bladder carcinoma may be intimately associated with large or numerous cholesterol gallstones that in the first instance may interfere with the mechanical functioning of the gall bladder. The size as well as the number of gallstones present in the gall bladder may contribute significantly to the promotion of a gallstone filling defect of the gall bladder that may cause chronic mechanical damage to the gall bladder mucosa. The present report supports the hypothesis that gall bladder carcinoma is an age-dependent malignancy, present mostly in women, that may be intimately associated with long-standing benign gallstone disease of the gall bladder.
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Surgery 10/2000; 70(9):667-73.