[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The extraordinary genetic diversity and immune evasion of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pose significant challenges for vaccine development and antiretroviral therapy efficacy. The objective of this study was to characterize the molecular profile of HIV-1 epidemic in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, determining the genetic subtypes and the presence of antiretroviral resistance mutations. HIV-1 pol DNA sequences from 57 individuals infected with HIV were obtained by PCR, followed by sequencing. The subtypes were determined by phylogenetic analyses and the intersubtype recombination was investigated by bootscanning. The pol subtypes were compared with gag and env subtypes. Antiretroviral susceptibility was evaluated through the Stanford HIV resistance Database. The subtypes frequencies were: 77.2% of subtype B, 1.8% of subtype F1, and 21.0% of BF recombinant forms. Two intergenic and three intragenic BF recombinant patterns were observed. Six (10.5%) viruses were related to CRF28/CRF29, two were related to CRF12 (3.5%), and one (1.8%) was CRF39. Fourteen (24.6%) strains carried one or more mutations associated with at least intermediate resistance: 24.6% had resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, 21.0% to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and 7% to protease inhibitors. The substitutions I54V (7.0%), M184V (14.0%), and K103N (10.5%) were the most frequent within each class of drugs. The results show a high diversity of BF genotypes and a lower prevalence of major reverse transcriptase and protease drug resistance mutations in Salvador, compared with other regions of Brazil. These findings may contribute to improve treatment strategies of patients infected with HIV-1 from this Brazilian region.
Journal of Medical Virology 12/2011; 83(12):2066-72. · 2.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Besides being extremely useful in measuring the level of HIV-1 diversity and prevalence in populations, the molecular analysis of genomic sequences provides crucial surveillance support and aids in the development of new therapies and effective vaccines. The present study focused on gag and env DNA and amino acid sequences that were generated from samples taken from 61 infected patients in the City of Salvador, Bahia, located in northeastern Brazil. In order to determine selective pressure and predict coreceptor usage, Bioinformatics tools were employed in phylogeny reconstruction. Fifty-six (91.8%) viruses were classified as belonging to subtype B, three (4.9%) from F1, and two (3.3%) from BF1 recombinants. Based on the characterization of the V3 region, the subtype B strains were represented by eight (18.2%) Brazilian variants (B'-GWGR), 20 (46.5%) European/EUA B variants (GPGR), and 15 (34.9%) GXGX variants. The mean time elapsed since diagnosis was 13 years among subtype B' and 9 years in subtype B. The mean dN/dS ratios from the GWGR, GPGR, and GXGX groups, when compared to an HXB2 reference, were 0.72, 0.77, and 0.67, respectively. Seventy-six percent of the viruses studied were predicted to use the CCR5 coreceptor for cell entry (R5 viruses), while 24% were predicted to use the CXCR4 or were classified as dual tropic viruses. The prevalence of subtypes B' and recombinant B/F1 was shown to be lower than findings from previous studies performed both in Brazil (B') and in Bahia (B/F1). The association between subtype B' and a lengthy period of time since diagnosis can be correlated with a slower disease progression in infected patients, when compared with those infected with subtype B.
AIDS research and human retroviruses 11/2010; 26(11):1249-54. · 2.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic analysis of HIV-1 is essential to improve treatment strategies and select epitopes for vaccine programs. The objective of this study was to determine whether known CD4+ and CD8+ epitopes were present in Brazilian HIV-1 strains. We used previously described CD8+ and CD4+ epitopes from the Los Alamos laboratory to search for these epitopes in the Brazilian sequences using the HIVbase program and we compared the frequency results with the analyses using physical-chemical profile tools from Network Protein Sequence Analysis (NPSA), and the SYFPEITHI program. Furthermore, this analysis was carried out with the Prosite tool using the GeneDoc program and ds/dn analyses using the Synonymous Nonsynonymous Analysis Program (SNAP). The HIVbase epitope mapping demonstrated that 30 CD8+ and 6 CD4+ epitopes were present in the Brazilian sequences at a high frequency. Only two of these epitopes were heavily glycosylated. Interestingly, ds/dn analyses showed evidence of purifying selective pressure. These types of analyses could be useful for the assessment of possible vaccine efficiency in populations.