ABSTRACT: Hypomethylation of the paternal imprinting center region 1 (ICR1) is the most frequent molecular cause of Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS). Clinical evidence suggests that patients with this epimutation have mild IGF1 insensitivity.
To assess in vitro IGF1 action in fibroblast culture from a patient with SRS and IGF1 insensitivity.
Fibroblast cultures from one patient with SRS due to ICR1 demethylation and controls were established. The SRS patient has severe growth failure, elevated IGF1 level, and poor growth rate during human recombinant GH treatment. IGF1 action was assessed by cell proliferation, AKT, and p42/44-MAPK phosphorylation. Gene expression was determined by real-time PCR.
Despite normal IGF1R sequence and expression, fibroblast proliferation induced by IGF1 was 50% lower in SRS fibroblasts in comparison with controls. IGF1 and insulin promoted a p42/44-MAPK activation in SRS fibroblasts 40 and 36%, respectively, lower than that in control fibroblasts. On the other hand, p42/44-MAPK activation induced by EGF stimulation was only slightly reduced (75% in SRS fibroblasts in comparison with control), suggesting a general impairment in MAPK pathway with a greater impairment of the stimulation induced by insulin and IGF1 than by EGF. A PCR array analysis disclosed a defect in MAPK pathway characterized by an increase in DUSP4 and MEF2C gene expressions in patient fibroblasts.
A post-receptor IGF1 insensitivity was characterized in one patient with SRS and ICR1 hypomethylation. Although based on one unique severely affected patient, these results raise an intriguing mechanism to explain the postnatal growth impairment observed in SRS patients that needs confirmation in larger cohorts.
European Journal of Endocrinology 12/2011; 166(3):543-50. · 3.42 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Approximately 10% of children born small-for-gestational age (SGA) do not show spontaneous growth catch-up. The causes of this deficit in prenatal growth and its maintenance after birth are not completely known, in most cases. Over the past eight years, several heterozygous inactivating mutations and deletions in IGF1R gene have been reported, indicating the role of defects in the IGFs/IGF1R axis as a cause of growth deficit. It has been hypothesized that at least 2.5% of children born SGA may have IGF1R gene defects. The clinical presentation of these patients is highly variable in the severity of growth retardation and hormonal parameters. In the most evident cases, patients have microcephaly, mild cognitive impairment and high levels of IGF-1, associated with short stature of prenatal onset. This review will describe the clinical, molecular and treatment of short stature with hrGH of children with mutations in the IGF1R gene.
Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia 11/2011; 55(8):541-9. · 0.68 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Compare the most frequently used weight-based GH dosing with an IGF-I level-based strategy in the treatment of children with severe GH deficiency. Additionally, analyse the influence of the GH receptor exon 3 polymorphism on IGF-I levels during GH therapy.
Thirty children with GH deficiency on treatment with GH for 4.3+/-3.2 yr in a single University Hospital were divided in group W (weight-based GH dosing) and group I (IGF-I-based dosing). In group I, GH doses were changed by 8.3 microg/kg d to maintain IGF-I levels between 0 and +2 SDS, whereas in group W the dose was fixed at 30 microg/kg d in prepubertal and 50 microg/kg d in pubertal patients. Growth velocity was measured after 1 yr, IGF-I and IGFBP3 levels quarterly. GH receptor exon 3 was genotyped by PCR.
Most patients in Group I reached target IGF-I levels after 6 months with a GH dose ranging between 25 and 66 microg/kg d (mean+/-SD, 38+/-8). Each change of 8.3 microg/kg d of GH dose, resulted in change of 1.17+/-0.6 SDS of IGF-I levels. Mean IGF-I levels were higher in Group I 0.8+/-0.5 SDS than in Group W -0.3+/-1.9 SDS (p<0.05), but growth velocities were similar, 6.8+/-2.6 cm/yr and 6.9+/-2.6 cm/yr (p=NS), respectively. Serum IGFBP3 levels were similar in both groups and were less useful to individualize GH therapy. Even treated with a similar mean GH dose, patients carrying at least one GH receptor d3-allele reached higher IGF-I levels (0.7+/-1.2 SDS) than those homozygous for the full-length allele (-0.3+/-1.2 SDS; p<0.05), however, growth velocities were not different.
By adjusting the GH dose, it was feasible to maintain IGF-I in the desired range (0-+2 SDS). Patients carrying at least one GH receptor d3-allele reached higher circulating IGF-I levels than those homozygous for the full-length allele. A multiple regression analysis failed to demonstrate an independent influence of IGF-I levels on GV during the 12 months of observation.
Growth hormone & IGF research: official journal of the Growth Hormone Research Society and the International IGF Research Society 12/2008; 19(2):179-86. · 2.35 Impact Factor