Lisa H Gren

University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States

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Publications (25)35.69 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To ascertain worker health characteristics and psychosocial factors associated with changes in body weight and total cholesterol (TC) among two production operation populations. We performed descriptive and predictive analysis of questionnaire data and biomedical measurements from two prospective cohort studies. Our key outcomes were changes in weight, and TC over 5 to 10 years between baseline and exit assessments. A total of 146 subjects were analyzed. Increases in weight were associated with belief in being overweight and baseline overweight and obesity. Increases in TC levels were associated with female sex, belief that TC levels were "not good," and feeling depressed. Most of the reported associations with increases in weight and TC levels are amenable to interventions and may be a target for workplace intervention programs.
    Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 07/2015; 57(7):743-750. DOI:10.1097/JOM.0000000000000484 · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe demographic and health characteristics, and factors associated with obesity among production workers. This cross-sectional study analyzed baseline data from two occupational cohorts. Regression modeling was used to assess associations between worker characteristics and obesity. A total of 1974 subjects were included in these analyses. The mean body mass index was 29.5 kg/m (SD = 6.5). Having smoked in the past and currently smoking decreased the odds of being obese in the WISTAH Distal Upper Extremity cohort, whereas those feeling depressed had increased odds of being obese. Being a Pacific Islander/Native Hawaiian and married increased the odds of obesity in the BackWorks Low Back Pain cohort. Factors associated with obesity differed substantially between the two cohorts. Recognizing factors associated with obesity in specific work settings may provide opportunities for optimizing preventive workplace interventions.
    Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 03/2015; 57(5). DOI:10.1097/JOM.0000000000000404 · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the readiness to change dietary intake and body weight among production workers. We also ascertained differences between self-perceived and measured body mass index. This cross-sectional study queried physical activity, psychosocial factors, fruit and vegetable intake, and readiness to change based on the transtheoretical model. Sixty-three (28%) workers were overweight, and 114 (50%) were obese. Obese workers were in the following stages of weight change: precontemplation (4%), contemplation (45%), preparation (13%), action (21%), and (17%) maintenance. Ten percent of overweight workers erroneously reported their body mass index to be normal. About half of overweight/obese workers were in the precontemplation or contemplation stages for healthy dietary changes or weight loss. Recognizing the stages of change with regard to weight and the self-perception of weight status may help tailor workplace health promotion programs.
    Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 03/2015; 57(3):270-6. DOI:10.1097/JOM.0000000000000346 · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract: Poorly executed transitions in care from hospital to home are associated with increased vulnerability to adverse medication events and hospital readmissions, and also excess healthcare costs. Efforts to improve care coordination on hospital discharge have been shown to reduce hospital readmission rates but often rely on interventions that are not fully integrated within the primary care setting. The Patient Centered Medical Home (PCMH) model, whose core principles include care coordination in the posthospital setting, is an approach that addresses transitions in care in a more integrated fashion. We examined the impact of multicomponent transition management (TM) services on hospital readmission rates and time to hospital readmission among 118 patients enrolled in a TM program that is part of Care By Design™, the University of Utah Community Clinics' version of the PCMH. We conducted a retrospective analysis comparing outcomes for patients before receiving TM services with outcomes for the same patients after receiving TM services. The all-cause 30-day hospital readmission rate decreased from 17.9% to 8.0%, and the mean time to hospital readmission within 180 days was delayed from 95 to 115 days. These findings support the effectiveness of TM activities integrated within the primary care setting.
    Journal for Healthcare Quality 01/2015; 37(1):81-92. DOI:10.1097/01.JHQ.0000460119.68190.98
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    ABSTRACT: Immunizing the population is a vital public health priority. This article describes a resident-led continuous quality improvement (CQI) project to improve the immunization rates of children under 3 years old at two urban Family Medicine (FM) residency clinics in Salt Lake City, Utah, as well as a break-even cost analysis to the clinics for the intervention.
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    ABSTRACT: Increased emphasis is being placed on the continuous quality improvement (CQI) education of residents of all specialties. This article describes a resident-led continuous quality improvement (CQI) project, based on a novel curriculum, to improve the immunization rates of children under 2 years old at the Madsen Family Health Center (MHC).
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. Identify predictors of non-compliance with first round screening exams in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. Method. The PLCO was conducted from 1993 to 2011 at 10 US institutions. A total of 154,897 healthy men and women ages 55-74 years were randomized. Intervention arm participants were invited to receive gender-appropriate screening exams for prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian cancer. Using intervention-arm data (73,036 participants), non-compliance percentages for 13 covariates were calculated, as were unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals. Covariates included demographic factors as well as factors specific to PLCO (e.g., method of consent, distance from screening center). Results. The rate of non-compliance was 11% overall but varied by screening center. Significant associations were observed for most covariates but indicated modest increases or decreases in odds. An exception was the use of a two-step consent process (consented intervention arm participants for exams after randomization) relative to a one-step process (consented all participants prior to randomization) (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 2.0-2.5). Non-compliance percentages increased with further distance from screening centers, but ORs were not significantly different from 1. Conclusions. Many factors modestly influenced compliance. Consent process was the strongest predictor of compliance. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Preventive Medicine 07/2014; 67. DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.07.013 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Organizational culture is key to the successful implementation of major improvement strategies. Transformation to a patient-centered medical home (PCHM) is such an improvement strategy, requiring a shift from provider-centric care to team-based care. Because this shift may impact provider satisfaction, it is important to understand the relationship between provider satisfaction and organizational culture, specifically in the context of practices that have transformed to a PCMH model. This was a cross-sectional study of surveys conducted in 2011 among providers and staff in 10 primary care clinics implementing their version of a PCMH: Care by Design. Measures included the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument and the American Medical Group Association provider satisfaction survey. Providers were most satisfied with quality of care (mean, 4.14; scale of 1-5) and interactions with patients (mean, 4.12) and were least satisfied with time spent working (mean, 3.47), paperwork (mean, 3.45), and compensation (mean, 3.35). Culture profiles differed across clinics, with family/clan and hierarchical cultures the most common. Significant correlations (P ≤ .05) between provider satisfaction and clinic culture archetypes included family/clan culture negatively correlated with administrative work; entrepreneurial culture positively correlated with the Time Spent Working dimension; market/rational culture positively correlated with how practices were facing economic and strategic challenges; and hierarchical culture negatively correlated with the Relationships with Staff and Resource dimensions. Provider satisfaction is an important metric for assessing experiences with features of a PCMH model. Identification of clinic-specific culture archetypes and archetype associations with provider satisfaction can help inform practice redesign. Attention to effective methods for changing organizational culture is recommended.
    The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine 03/2014; 27(2):219-228. DOI:10.3122/jabfm.2014.02.120338 · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated emergency physician knowledge of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) reimbursement for common tests ordered and procedures performed in the emergency department (ED), determined the relative accuracy of their estimation, and reported the impact of perceived costs on physicians' ordering and prescribing behavior. We distributed an online survey to 189 emergency physicians in 11 EDs across multiple institutions. The survey asked respondents to estimate reimbursement rates for a limited set of medical tests and procedures, rate their level of current cost knowledge, and determine the effect of health expenditures on their medical decision making. We calculated relative accuracy of cost knowledge as a percent difference of participant estimation of cost from the CMS reimbursement rate. Ninety-seven physicians participated in the study. Most respondents (65%) perceived their knowledge of costs as inadequate, and 39.3% indicated that beliefs about cost impacted their ordering behavior. Eighty percent of physicians surveyed were unable to estimate 25% of the costs within ±25%, and no physicians estimated at least 50% of costs within 25% of the CMS reimbursement and only 17.3% of medical services were estimated correctly within ±25% by 1 or more physicians. Most emergency physicians indicated they should consider cost in their decision making but have a limited knowledge of cost estimates used by CMS to calculate reimbursement rates. Interventions that are easily accessible and applicable in the ED setting are needed to educate physicians about costs, reimbursement, and charges associated with the care they deliver.
    The American journal of emergency medicine 02/2014; 32(6). DOI:10.1016/j.ajem.2014.01.044 · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: To date, no physical activity (PA) questionnaires intended for primary care have been compared against a criterion measure of PA and current (2008) aerobic PA recommendations of the American College of Sports Medicine/American Heart Association (ACSM/AHA). Aim: This study evaluated preliminary evidence for criterion validity of two brief (<1 min) PA questionnaires with accelerometry, and their ability to identify if individuals meet ACSM/AHA PA recommendations. Methods: 45 health clinic staff wore an accelerometer for seven consecutive days and afterwards completed two brief PA questionnaires, the Physical Activity Vital Sign (PAVS), and the Speedy Nutrition and Physical Activity Assessment (SNAP). Agreement and descriptive statistics were calculated between the PAVS or SNAP and accelerometry in order to measure each questionnaire's ability to quantify the number of days participants achieved ⩾30 min of moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) performed in bouts of ⩾10 continuous minutes. Participants with <5 days of ⩾30 bout-min of MVPA were considered insufficiently active according to PA recommendations. Findings: There was a significant positive correlation between number of days with ⩾30 bout-min MVPA and the PAVS (r=0.52, P<0.001), and SNAP (r=0.31, P<0.05). The PAVS had moderate agreement with accelerometry for identifying if individuals met or did not meet PA recommendations (κ=0.46, P<0.001), whereas SNAP had poor agreement (κ=0.12, P<0.05). Conclusions: This study provides preliminary evidence of criterion validity of the PAVS and SNAP with accelerometry and agreement identifying if respondents meet current (2008) ACSM/AHA aerobic PA recommendations. The PAVS and SNAP should be evaluated further for repeatability, and in populations varying in PA levels, age, gender, and ethnicity.
    Primary Health Care Research & Development 01/2014; DOI:10.1017/S1463423613000479
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    ABSTRACT: Background Rural women in West Bengal have been found to have low rates of formal education, poor health knowledge, high rates of malnutrition and anemia, and low levels of empowerment. Despite these difficult circumstances, some women have positive health outcomes compared to women with similarly disadvantaged backgrounds. The purpose of this study is to identify factors associated with positive health outcomes among women with primary education or less. Methods Multivariable regression models were built for outcomes of positive deviance to better characterize the factors in a woman’s life that most impact her ability to deviate from the status quo. Results Positive deviants in this context are shown to be women who are able to earn an income, who have access to information through media sources, and who, despite little schooling, have marginally higher levels of formal education that lead to improved health outcomes. Conclusions Study findings indicate that positive deviant women in disadvantaged circumstances can achieve positive outcomes amidst a host of contextual barriers that would predict poor health outcomes. Focusing on areas such as enhancing access to media sources, facilitating self-help groups for married women, and promoting prolonged education and delayed marriage for girls may improve health knowledge and behavior among married women with low levels of education.
    BMC Public Health 04/2013; 13(1):372. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-13-372 · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. Disease surveillance combines data collection and analysis with dissemination of findings to decision makers. The timeliness of these activities affects the ability to implement preventive measures. Influenza surveillance has traditionally been hampered by delays in both data collection and dissemination. Methods. We used statistical process control (SPC) to evaluate the daily percentage of outpatient visits with a positive point-of-care (POC) influenza test in the University of Utah Primary Care Research Network. Results. Retrospectively, POC testing generated an alert in each of 4 seasons (2004-2008, median 16 days before epidemic onset), suggesting that email notification of clinicians would be 9 days earlier than surveillance alerts posted to the Utah Department of Health website. In the 2008-09 season, the algorithm generated a real-time alert 19 days before epidemic onset. Clinicians in 4 intervention clinics received email notification of the alert within 4 days. Compared with clinicians in 6 control clinics, intervention clinicians were 40% more likely to perform rapid testing (P = 0.105) and twice as likely to vaccinate for seasonal influenza (P = 0.104) after notification. Conclusions. Email notification of SPC-generated alerts provided significantly earlier notification of the epidemic onset than traditional surveillance. Clinician preventive behavior was not significantly different in intervention clinics.
    04/2013; 2013:242970. DOI:10.1155/2013/242970
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    ABSTRACT: The period of adolescence is a critical time of development. There is an urgent need to better assess adolescent health worldwide, particularly in India, a country with the world's largest adolescent population. Validated screening tools are needed to evaluate health-related risks and behaviors in this growing demographic. We developed, validated and administered a school-based health assessment, the Indian Adolescent Health Questionnaire, which can be used as a comprehensive health-screening tool among Indian adolescents in secondary school.
    Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 02/2013; 59(3). DOI:10.1093/tropej/fmt006 · 0.86 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Adolescent Health 02/2013; 52(2):S79-S80. DOI:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.10.185 · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many clinical trials rely on participant report to first learn about study events. It is therefore important to have current contact information and the ability to locate participants should information become outdated. The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) and the Lung Screening Study (LSS) component of the National Lung Screening Trial, two large randomized cancer screening trials, enrolled almost 190,000 participants on whom annual contact was necessary. Ten screening centers participated in both trials. Centers developed methods to track participants and trace them when necessary. We describe the methods used to keep track of participants and trace them when lost, and the extent to which each method was used. Screening center coordinators were asked, using a self-administered paper questionnaire, to rate the extent to which specific tracking and tracing methods were used. Many methods were used by the screening centers, including telephone calls, mail, and internet searches. The most extensively used methods involved telephoning the participant on his or her home or cell phone, or telephoning a person identified by the participant as someone who would know about the participant's whereabouts. Internet searches were used extensively as well; these included searches on names, reverse-lookup searches (on addresses or telephone numbers) and searches of the Social Security Death Index. Over time, the percentage of participants requiring tracing decreased. Telephone communication and internet services were useful in keeping track of PLCO and LSS participants and tracing them when contact information was no longer valid.
    Contemporary clinical trials 04/2012; 33(4):601-5. DOI:10.1016/j.cct.2012.04.006 · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Risk factors, such as parental smoking, are commonly associated with increased asthma symptoms and hospitalizations of children. Deseret Mutual Benefits Administrators (DMBA) is the health insurer for employees of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and their families. Due to religious proscription, employees abstain from alcohol and tobacco use, creating a cohort of children not exposed to parental smoking. Calculation of hospitalization rates for DMBA, Utah, and the US were made in children to compare rates between a nonsmoking population and general populations. Compared to DMBA, rate ratios for asthma hospitalization and emergency department asthma visits were higher for the US and Utah. The incidence of hospital outpatient department and physician office visits was significantly greater for the US population compared to the DMBA. This study demonstrates a decreased need for health services used by children not exposed to second-hand smoke.
    10/2011; 2011:750213. DOI:10.5402/2011/750213
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    ABSTRACT: Healthcare claims data were used to better understand the diagnostic investigation and treatment of cancer. A retrospective cohort study was used involving claims data from a large insurance company. Analyses were based on electronic claims data from 1997 through 2006 for enrollees aged 15-64 years. This study showed that 96% of all first time cancer-related claims involved physician services. The percentage of physician services involving diagnostic workup in the form of some combination of blood testing, radiology, and surgery was 89% for non-skin cancer and 95% for skin cancer. The percentage of physician services involving some combination of chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery was 24% for non-skin cancer and 14% for skin cancer. Thus, for cancer (excluding skin cancer) the ratio of diagnostic workup to treatment was 2.7 to 1. For skin cancer, the ratio was 6.3 to 1. The percentage receiving treatment ranged from 13% for the male genital system to 46% for cancers of the bones and joints. Beyond cancers of the male or female genital systems, cancer-related claims involving treatment were 34% (95% CI 17-54%) higher for females than males. Healthcare claims data can be used to generate useful information for physicians and their patients about the process and nature of the diagnostic workups and treatment that typically occur when cancer is suspected.
    Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research 05/2009; 15(5):PH25-31. · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) is a US National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate whether certain screening tests reduce mortality from prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer. To obtain adequate statistical power, it was necessary to enroll over 150,000 healthy volunteers. Recruitment began in 1993 and ended in 2001. Our goal is to evaluate the success of recruitment methods employed by the 10 PLCO screening centers. We also provide estimates of recruitment yield and cost for our most successful strategy, direct mail. Each screening center selected its own methods of recruitment. Methods changed throughout the recruitment period as needed. For this manuscript, representatives from each screening center provided information on methods utilized and their success. In the United States between 1993 and 2001, ten screening centers enrolled 154,934 study participants. Based on participant self-report, an estimated 95% of individuals were recruited by direct mail. Overall, enrollment yield for direct mail was 1.0%. Individual center enrollment yield ranged from 0.7% to 3.8%. Cost per enrolled participant was $9.64-35.38 for direct mail, excluding personnel costs. Numeric data on recruitment processes were not kept consistently at individual screening centers. Numeric data in this manuscript are based on the experiences of 5 of the 10 centers. Direct mail, using rosters of names and addresses from profit and not-for-profit (including government) organizations, was the most successful and most often used recruitment method. Other recruitment strategies, such as community outreach and use of mass media, can be an important adjunct to direct mail in recruiting minority populations.
    Clinical Trials 03/2009; 6(1):52-9. DOI:10.1177/1740774508100974 · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study describes the influence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on the incidence rates of selected injuries. A retrospective cohort study design was employed using medical claims data from the Deseret Mutual Benefit Administrators (DMBA), a health insurance company for employees of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS) and their spouses and dependent children. ADHD diagnosis, injury, medication, and demographic data were extracted from claims files during 1998-2005 for all enrollees aged 0-64 years. Incidence rates of ADHD were 1.83 (95% CI 1.68-2.00) times greater in males than females and highest in the age group 5-9 years and income group $80,000 or greater. ADHD increased the risk of selected injuries. The most common injuries involved sprains and strains of joints, then open wounds of the head, neck and trunk, and upper/lower limb, and then fractures of the upper/lower limb. Medication did not significantly protect against injury in ADHD patients. The rate of severe injury (i.e., fracture of skull, neck and trunk; intracranial injury excluding those with skull fracture; and injuries to nerves and spinal cord) was 3.07 (95% CI 2.37-3.98) times more common in ADHD enrollees compared with non-ADHD enrollees. Those with 1, 2, 3, or 4 or more injuries were 1.67 (1.50-1.86), 2.11 (1.75-2.56), 2.63 (1.80-3.84), and 2.94 (1.47-5.87) times more likely to have ADHD, respectively. ADHD is positively associated with injuries. More severe injuries have a significantly stronger associated with ADHD than less severe injuries.
    Advances in Medical Sciences 02/2009; 54(1):20-6. DOI:10.2478/v10039-009-0022-7 · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The epidemiology of fibromyalgia is poorly defined. The incidence of fibromyalgia has not been determined using a large population base. Previous studies based on prevalence data demonstrated that females are 7 times more likely to have fibromyalgia than males and that the peak age for females is during the childbearing years. We have calculated the incidence rate of fibromyalgia in a large, stable population and determined the strength of association between fibromyalgia and 7 comorbid conditions. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of a large, stable health insurance claims database (62,000 nationwide enrollees per year). Claims from 1997 to 2002 were examined using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes to identify fibromyalgia cases (ICD code 729.1) and 7 predetermined comorbid conditions. A total of 2595 incident cases of fibromyalgia were identified between 1997 and 2002. Age-adjusted incidence rates were 6.88 cases per 1000 person-years for males and 11.28 cases per 1000 person-years for females. Females were 1.64 times (95% confidence interval = 1.59-1.69) more likely than males to have fibromyalgia. Patients with fibromyalgia were 2.14 to 7.05 times more likely to have one or more of the following comorbid conditions: depression, anxiety, headache, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis. Females are more likely to be diagnosed with fibromyalgia than males, although to a substantially smaller degree than previously reported, and there are strong associations for comorbid conditions that are commonly thought to be associated with fibromyalgia.
    JCR Journal of Clinical Rheumatology 07/2006; 12(3):124-8. DOI:10.1097/01.rhu.0000221817.46231.18 · 1.25 Impact Factor